PIONEER PARASITOLOGIST – FIFTY YEARS OF LOCAL FLUKE RESEARCH (Profile of Dr Joe Boray) (WormMail)

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The following article by Bruce Watt was written originally (16 June 2010) for the ‘Western Advocate’ newspaper, Bathurst NSW.
It is reprinted here with permission.
 

This profile of Joe Boray follows on the heels of Dr Boray’s detailed essay on liver fluke, first published in the WormMail e-newsletter ((20100329), archived here)), and also in Turning the Worm, Issue 26, May 2010.
 

Below is a picture of Dr Boray and friend (Fasciola hepatica) I retrieved from the archives.  This was taken in 1999 at EMAI, when Joe was in his early-seventies. (Photographer unknown).
 

SL
boray-jc-with-his-beloved-fasciola-hepatica-emai-1999-joe-in-ealry-70s

Dr Joe Boray with ‘friend’. EMAI, 1999.
 

“PIONEER PARASITOLOGIST CHALKS UP FIFTY YEARS OF LOCAL FLUKE RESEARCH  (Profile of Dr Joe Boray)Bruce Watt, Senior District Veterinarian, Tablelands Livestock Health and Pest Authority, Bathurst

A few months ago an impromptu group of farmers gathered at the Hampton Halfway House (between Oberon and Lithgow) to hear Dr Joe Boray talk about liver fluke. A few days previously, Joe had mentioned to me that he was travelling up to Hampton as he has done for the last fifty years to collect liver fluke snails and to study liver fluke.

Liver fluke is an important parasite on the tablelands and I was keen to learn more myself and to share this information with producers in a known fluke area. However, I also wanted farmers to meet Joe because he has made so many important contributions to the study of parasites that he is a legend and an inspiration.

Joe graduated in veterinary science from the University of Budapest in 1950. Soon afterwards, he commenced his research career and completed a PhD on hydatids. However, he also commenced work on the treatment of liver fluke.

You might recall that in 1956 following widespread student protests, the Hungarian people sought some independence from Stalin’s Soviet domination. The standard Soviet reaction to a rebuff was to send in the tanks. Many people died and over 200,000 Hungarians fled. These refugees included some of Hungary’s best and brightest and many have made prominent contributions to Australia.

Was it because of a fluke that Joe chose Australia? Anyway, he arrived in 1957 and commenced a twelve-year stint with the CSIRO. He sought to understand the biology of the fluke and snail. He also sought improved treatments for fascioliasis (fluke infestation).

Joe interrupted his work with CSIRO to accept an invitation from the University of Hanover. Here he studied the survival of fluke larvae under different climatic conditions. From 1969 to 1972, he taught parasitology to medical and veterinary students and studied the chemical treatment of fluke in Switzerland.

In 1972, Joe started ten year’s work with the pharmaceutical company Ciba-Geigy. His team worked on the development of new chemical treatments for parasites. These included treatments for ticks in cattle and parasites in dogs. However, Joe was also responsible for the development of cyromazine (Vetrazin(R)) which remains highly effective against blowflies and triclabendazole (Fasinex(R)) which has become the cornerstone of fluke control.

In 1983, Joe moved to the NSW Department of Agriculture at Glenfield then Camden (EMAI) where he looked at chemical resistance in sheep lice and liver fluke. Joe however also looked at chemical combinations to improve the treatment of fluke. He found that triclabendazole acted in synergy with oxfendazole improving the kill of immature fluke. This combination is now marketed as Flukazole C(R).

In 1999, aged 73, Joe ‘retired’ from NSW Agriculture (or was it DPI) to set up an independent consulting company. I know that Joe was involved in developing a new combination of chemicals to treat fluke to decrease our dependency on triclabendazole. The combination is marketed as Nitromec(R).

At home, Joe has a laboratory in which he continues to breed liver fluke snails, as you do, hence his visit to Hampton to replenish his snail breeding stock. Joe makes these snails available to researchers wishing to study their interaction with fluke larvae

The work of Joe Boray underpins most of what we know about the treatment and control of fascioliasis. For example Joe established that both fluke and snails become dormant in winter so that treatment in April-May with a product such as triclabendazole and oxfendazole (developed by Joe and team) or Nitromec(R) (developed by Joe and team) will kill both adult and immature fluke, suppressing the spring build up in fluke larvae and so reducing the treat of disease and lost production in our tablelands stock.

I still have a few questions about liver fluke. Do we have drench resistance in our fluke population? What fluke control programs should we recommend for properties with low levels of fluke or no apparent loss from fluke. What are fluke infestation costing producers on these properties? Joe Boray has given us a wonderful foundation as we seek to answer these queries.”

~~~~~~~~~~~~~

 

Some liver fluke links:

 

* Industry and Investment NSW-Primary Industries

 

* WormBoss

 

SL | Veterinarian, State Coordinator-Internal Parasites
Industry & Investment NSW – Primary Industries
Building C02 Northern Ring Road | PO Box U86 | University of New England – Armidale NSW 2351
T: 61 2 6738 8519

        

 

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WormBoss June Outlooks and Newsletter / Winter WormTesting (WormMail 201006151300)

TO: WormMail mailing list (recip. undisclosed)   WormMail 201006151300

The WormBoss Monthly News/Outlook for June will be out soon.

Have you subscribed?  Go to WormBoss or contact webmaster@wool.com and quote "WormBoss" in the subject line.

These Outlooks are good value: ‘feedback on what is happening with sheep worms from advisors in different areas around Australia (There are a dozen or so contributors from NSW alone).

Where else can you get this sort of information? A small serving each month of digestible, quality locally relevant information. Why go hungry?

Some news from Arthur Le Feuvre (QLD) on developments:

Those of you who follow the WormBoss outlooks and news will have noticed that it is now possible to download the entire Newsletter in PDF format and print it, or, alternatively, select the state report you are interested in and, at the bottom of the report, you will see you can download a PDF of that state report.
We hope that this makes it easier for users who would like to distribute all or part of the newsletter to be able to do so.

Winter WormTesting

With winter here, needy classes of sheep – notably weaners and pregnant ewes – could run into problems with nutrition in many parts of NSW.

The two biggest causes of illthrift in livestock are nutrition (not enough) and parasites (too many), and one makes animals more susceptible to problems with the other.

You can fat or condition score sheep, and visually assess pasture, but worms will eat significantly into productivity and welfare before you even notice.

Don’t guess, WormTest! Monitor worm egg counts in sheep, especially weaners and pregnant ewes, over winter. It pays.

SL

Veterinarian, State Coordinator-Internal Parasites
Industry & Investment NSW - Primary Industries
University of New England - Armidale NSW 2351

      

        

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New drenches: Monepantel (‘Zolvix’-Novartis) in the APVMA Gazette; ‘Startect’ (derquantel+abamectin) – Pfizer

Monepantel in the APVMA Gazette; derquantel-abamectin in the NZ Vet Journal

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Monepantel (‘Zolvix’-Novartis), classed as an  ‘amino-acetonitrile derivative ( AAD )’, was registered a little over year ago in NZ. It appeared in yesterday’s gazette from the Australian Pesticides and Veterinary Medicines Authority.

Here is the link:

http://www.apvma.gov.au/publications/gazette/2010/11/gazette_2010-06-08_page_13.pdf

So, we are progressing towards registration of monepantel in Australia. (When, I don’t know).

Meanwhile things are developing with the other novel anthelmintic, derquantel (classed as a ‘spiroindole’), which Pfizer is working on as part of an oral combination (‘Startect’) with abamectin. (Derquantel is new; obviously abamectin is not).

Little and others have recently published on this in the New Zealand Veterinary Journal:

Field efficacy and safety of an oral formulation of the novel combination anthelmintic, derquantel-abamectin, in sheep in New Zealand
Little PR, Hodge A, Watson TG, Seed JA, Maeder SJ
New Zealand Veterinary Journal, Volume 58, Issue 3, pp 121-129, Jun 2010

Here are excerpts:

"Controlled faecal egg count reduction tests (FECRT) were conducted in New Zealand in 14 trials, covering a range of geographic locations, farming enterprises, breeds, nematode populations, and anthelmintic-resistance profiles. Enrolled animals were naturally infected with mixed populations of gastrointestinal nematodes. All trials included a group treated with derquantel-abamectin, and a negative control group. Nine trials included additional groups each treated with a single- or dual-active oral reference anthelmintic, selected from albendazole, levamisole, albendazole-levamisole, ivermectin, abamectin and moxidectin.

The efficacy of derquantel-abamectin against mixed strongyle populations was ≥99.2%, based on the percentage reduction in geometric mean FEC. Nematodirus sp. was present in six trials at a level sufficient for efficacy calculations to be conducted; in all cases, the efficacy of derquantel-abamectin was 100%. In those trials where the efficacy of at least one reference anthelmintic was <95% against strongyles and/or Nematodirus sp., derquantel-abamectin was 100% effective.

When administered orally at 1 ml/5 kg bodyweight, derquantel-abamectin is highly effective for the treatment of gastrointestinal nematodes in sheep, including populations of strongyles and Nematodirus sp. with resistance to one or more single- or dual-active anthelmintics. Derquantel-abamectin presents sheep producers with a unique opportunity to introduce a new class of anthelmintic to their nematode control programmes, with the added benefits offered by a combination anthelmintic."

Regards

Steve

SL | Veterinarian, State Coordinator-Internal Parasites
Industry & Investment NSW - Primary Industries

      

        

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