WRML: Liver fluke antibody ELISA – NSW DPI and other fluke matters

TO: WormMail mailing list (recip. undisclosed).    

Liver fluke antibody and antigen ELISAs, liver fluke egg counts, costs of tests, Joe Boray’s Primefact on liver fluke, what areas have liver fluke?, watch out for liver fluke,  comment from a Senior District Vet

I am firing off this quick WormMail as a colleague just asked me about the Liver Fluke Antibody ELISA that NSW DPI offers.

Here (pasted below) is the official blurb:

Unknownname

Retrieved from < http://www.dpi.nsw.gov.au/agriculture/vetmanual/specimens-by-discipline/parasitology/fasciola > today, 28/5/12.

How much does this test cost?   See  http://www.dpi.nsw.gov.au/agriculture/vetmanual/submission/lab-charges#fees

Here is the link to Primefact 446 (by Dr JC Boray):  http://www.dpi.nsw.gov.au/agriculture/livestock/sheep/health/liverfluke-disease-sheep-cattle

Of course the other way to test for liver fluke is a Liver Fluke Egg Count. Note that this employs a different technique from that for roundworms (‘strongyle’ and other roundworms), because fluke eggs are heavy and do not float in saturated salt solutions (specific gravity= 1.2) which are used for roundworm egg counts.

Liver fluke antigen tests have also been developed (eg in Europe): these detect bits (antigen) of the fluke themselves rather than the host’s response to them (antibody). One of these (antigen ELISA) tests is being trialled by CSU Wagga Wagga as mentioned in the last WormMail.

Where are liver fluke in NSW etc?

Another colleague  asked me this.   For the time being I will just  refer people to Joe Boray’s Primefact which has maps, and also I will paste or attach the map and some text from ‘Seddon’ (from the 1960s).

There is more up to date information from an abattoir surveillance program that looks for various conditions in sheep (including parasitic diseases, including liver disease suggestive of fasciolosis), but that will take me some time to track down. (Possibly some District Veterinarians have this information).

Watch out for liver fluke!

I have been saying lately that we need to be on the watch out for liver fluke (as well as roundworms of course), remembering also that, although wintry weather may stop egg development, the infective larval stages produced in autumn can survive on pasture and be available for ingestion by livestock over winter. (This includes liver fluke and barber’s pole worm).

Here is a comment Senior District Veterinarian, Steve Eastwood (Armidale, NSW) made to me today:

"Fluke in sheep –  I have had 3 (liver fluke-related) calls  in the last week, the most recent from a property at Walcha that has had anaemic ewes and weaners but non responsive to drenching (for roundworms).  It appears that they stopped using Fasinex(R) (or any other flukicide) 5 years ago.  I suspect, as you have suggested, that the drier years saw fluke drop off and subsequent programs diminish. The last two years have seen an explosion in fluke (and snail) numbers.  The recent dry few months are now seeing sheep seek out the low lying soaks, for greener grass and are getting a bucket load of fluke.  Something we all need to be aware of if people are reporting illthrift or non response to ordinary drenching."

Likewise I had a call from a sheep stud in the Orange district (central west NSW) last week. They had sheep severely affected by ‘bottle jaw’ and anaemia. They were focused totally on barber’s pole worm. However, the drenching history, grazing history and other tidbits of information suggested to me that liver fluke disease was the most likely cause of the problem. She is now on the appropriate diagnostic and treatment pathway.

Vets from the southern tablelands have also commented that liver fluke has dropped off the radar for some producers.

Disclosure:

I have no conflict of interests in writing this WormMail. In particular I will get no kickbacks or special treatment as a result of any increase in sales of flukicides.  🙂

Regards

SL

20120528160335.pdf Download this file

Wormfax April 2012 | Time to treat for liver fluke! | Fasciolosis on the increase? | BIG fluke counts! and flukicide resistance

To WormMail mailing list (recip. undisclosed).

 

Wormfax April 2012  |  Time to treat for liver fluke! | Fasciolosis on the increase? | BIG fluke counts! and flukicide resistance

 

WormFaxNSW-April edition

 

April is online.

 

http://www.dpi.nsw.gov.au/aboutus/resources/periodicals/newsletters/wormfax

 

Sources of data: State Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory, Menangle NSW; Veterinary Health Research, Armidale, NSW.

 

Highest count this month was in the Central North LHPA: WormTest average of ~ 22,500 eggs per gram (!00% Haemonchus on larval differentiation).

 

 

Time to treat for liver fluke!

 

https://wormmailinthecloud.wordpress.com/2012/05/21/time-to-drench-for-liver-f…

 

 

Liver fluke disease on the increase? the conditions are right….

 

We are getting a few reports of liver fluke disease in livestock around the state, particularly because:

 

* its been a dry autumn in some areas, which means stock have headed for wetter/flukey areas on the farm for green pick.

 

* the last 2-3 years have been good for a build up in snail and fluke populations in many areas

 

* liver fluke has gone off the radar for some people with several years of dry or droughty years prior to the last 2-3 good years.

 

* resistance of fluke to flukicides may be a factor in some cases. (see article at https://wormmailinthecloud.wordpress.com/2012/05/21/time-to-drench-for-liver-f…

 

 

Spectacularly high liver fluke egg counts (and, in one case, flukicide resistance)

 

Mostly liver fluke counts are low, usually well below 100 eggs per gram of faeces, and often not making it into double figures.(Have a look at WormFax).

 

The highest counts I recall seeing were during a ‘reconnaissance liver fluke resistance survey’ we (NSW DPI + LHPAs) did about ~ 10 years: there was a flock (of Merinos) south of Walcha that had mean counts between 300 and 400 eggs per gram.

 

(By the way, in that survey, putative triclabendazole resistant fluke (on the basis of egg counts) was found in sheep on the Monaro (field operative: (former) District Vet, Dr Chris Haylock née Venning). In that survey, we tested triclabendazole and closantel. In addition to pre-trial egg counts, counts were also done at days zero, 28 and 56 post-treatment (on advice from FlukeMeister, Dr JC Boray).

 

But how is this for a high count?

 

NSW DPI Veterinary Pathologist Dr Zoe Spiers at the State Vet Lab at Menangle rang me about this case in alpacas in a tablelands region of NSW.

 

One animal had a count of  2217 fluke epg.   (Report Number: M12-07437-F-V1). For me that is right up there with the Trichostrongylus sp burden (~ 60, 000 epg) found by Kylie Greentree in sheep, who was then (~ 2 years ago?) Veterinary Officer, Bourke.

 

Meanwhile Dr Gareth Kelly (Tech Services Manager, Virbac Australia) tells me the highest fluke egg counts he has seen this year were above 3000 in 4 grams of faeces (ie >750 fluke epg).  The sheep were dying.

 

Possibly Gareth encountered these numbers while involved in an investigation of a fluke problem (March 2012) in East Friesian-Dohne cross sheep (55-60 kg liveweight) in the Berrigan area, approximately 100 km east of Deniliquin (NSW Riverina). The sheep were introduced from Deniliquin about 2 years previously.

 

(As Dr Boray points out in his factsheet on liver fluke, you can get liver fluke in irrigation areas as well as tablelands and coastal areas in the eats of NSW).

 

The sheep had been treated a number of times with flukicides before the efficacy of them was checked. Round worm egg counts were very low. As to liver fluke (F. hepatica), samples collected 21 days post-treatment showed:

 

* the untreated controls had a fluke of 3366 in 4 grams of faeces (ie ~840 fluke epg),

 

* the triclabendazole group had a count of ~750 epg (= 11% reduction in egg count), and

 

* the closantel treated group had a count of ~ 14 epg ( =  ~ 98 % reduction in fluke egg count).(ParaSite Dx Lab (Benalla) # 12750)

 

Registered drenches containing triclabendazole (source: apvma.gov.au)

 

There is also a permit (see APVMA website) for triclabendazole in alpacas.

 

Product No|Category|Product Name|Actives
47675|PARASITICIDES|FASINEX 120 FLUKICIDE FOR CATTLE AND SHEEP|TRICLABENDAZOLE
47676|PARASITICIDES|FASINEX 50 FLUKICIDE FOR SHEEP CATTLE AND GOATS|TRICLABENDAZOLE
51262|PARASITICIDES|FASINEX 240 ORAL FLUKICIDE FOR CATTLE|TRICLABENDAZOLE
51308|PARASITICIDES|FLUKARE C FLUKICIDE FOR CATTLE AND SHEEP|TRICLABENDAZOLE
51309|PARASITICIDES|FLUKARE S FLUKICIDE FOR SHEEP, CATTLE AND GOATS|TRICLABENDAZOLE
52185|PARASITICIDES|FASINEX 100 ORAL FLUKICIDE FOR SHEEP, CATTLE AND GOATS|TRICLABENDAZOLE
52406|PARASITICIDES|FASIMEC CATTLE ORAL FLUKICIDE AND BROAD SPECTRUM DRENCH|IVERMECTIN / TRICLABENDAZOLE
52463|PARASITICIDES|TREMACIDE 120 FLUKICIDE FOR CATTLE AND SHEEP|TRICLABENDAZOLE
52467|PARASITICIDES|FASIMEC SHEEP ORAL FLUKICIDE AND BROAD SPECTRUM DRENCH|IVERMECTIN / TRICLABENDAZOLE
52715|PARASITICIDES|FLUKAMEC ANTHELMINTIC FOR SHEEP|ABAMECTIN / TRICLABENDAZOLE
52865|PARASITICIDES|FASICARE 120 FLUKICIDE FOR CATTLE AND SHEEP|TRICLABENDAZOLE
52899|PARASITICIDES|FLUKAZOLE C COMBINATION FLUKE AND ROUNDWORM DRENCH FOR CATTLE|OXFENDAZOLE / TRICLABENDAZOLE
53074|PARASITICIDES|FLUKAZOLE S COMBINATION FLUKE AND ROUNDWORM DRENCH FOR SHEEP|OXFENDAZOLE / TRICLABENDAZOLE
53520|PARASITICIDES|COOPERS PARAMAX-F BROAD SPECTRUM ORAL ANTHELMINTIC AND FLUKICIDE FOR SHEEP|IVERMECTIN / TRICLABENDAZOLE
54108|PARASITICIDES|FLUKAMEC PLUS SELENIUM ANTHELMINTIC FOR SHEEP|ABAMECTIN / SELENIUM AS SODIUM SELENATE / TRICLABENDAZOLE
55524|PARASITICIDES|CYDECTIN PLUS FLUKE ORAL DRENCH AND LIVER FLUKE TREATMENT FOR SHEEP|MOXIDECTIN / TRICLABENDAZOLE
55587|PARASITICIDE+NUTRITIONAL|FLUKARE S PLUS SELENIUM FLUKICIDE FOR SHEEP, CATTLE AND GOATS|SELENIUM AS SODIUM SELENATE / TRICLABENDAZOLE
56465|PARASITICIDES|GENESIS ULTRA POUR-ON ROUNDWORM, LIVER FLUKE & EXTERNAL PARASITICIDE FOR CATTLE|ABAMECTIN / TRICLABENDAZOLE
56706|PARASITICIDE+NUTRITIONAL|FLUKAZOLE C PLUS SELENIUM COMBINATION FLUKE AND ROUNDWORM DRENCH FOR CATTLE AND SHEEP|OXFENDAZOLE / SELENIUM AS SODIUM SELENATE / TRICLABENDAZOLE
56725|PARASITICIDES|FLUKARE C PLUS SELENIUM FLUKICIDE FOR CATTLE, SHEEP AND GOATS|SELENIUM AS SODIUM SELENATE / TRICLABENDAZOLE
58529|PARASITICIDES|YOUNG’S TRICLA 120 FLUKICIDE FOR CATTLE AND SHEEP|TRICLABENDAZOLE
58560|PARASITICIDES|YOUNG’S TRICLAMEC CATTLE ORAL FLUKICIDE AND BROAD SPECTRUM DRENCH|IVERMECTIN / TRICLABENDAZOLE
58561|PARASITICIDES|YOUNGS TRICLAMEC SHEEP ORAL FLUKICIDE AND BROAD SPECTRUM DRENCH|IVERMECTIN / TRICLABENDAZOLE
58611|PARASITICIDES|COOPERS SOVEREIGN POUR-ON FLUKICIDE AND ANTHELMINTIC FOR CATTLE|IVERMECTIN / TRICLABENDAZOLE
58971|PARASITICIDES|FASIMEC CATTLE POUR-ON FLUKICIDE AND BROAD SPECTRUM ANTHELMINTIC|ABAMECTIN / TRICLABENDAZOLE
58978|PARASITICIDES|YOUNG’S TRICLAMEC CATTLE POUR-ON FLUKICIDE AND BROAD SPECTRUM ANTHELMINTIC|ABAMECTIN / TRICLABENDAZOLE
58982|PARASITICIDES|YOUNG’S TRICLA 50 FLUKICIDE FOR SHEEP, CATTLE AND GOATS|TRICLABENDAZOLE
60489|PARASITICIDES|EXIFLUKE ORAL FLUKICIDE FOR SHEEP, CATTLE AND GOATS|TRICLABENDAZOLE
60617|PARASITICIDES|WSD LV TRICLABENDAZOLE ORAL FLUKICIDE FOR SHEEP, CATTLE AND GOATS|TRICLABENDAZOLE
62708|PARASITICIDES|AVOMEC PLUS POUR-ON ROUNDWORM, LIVER FLUKE AND EXTERNAL PARASITICIDE FOR CATTLE|ABAMECTIN / TRICLABENDAZOLE
63506|PARASITICIDES|CYDECTIN PLUS FLUKE ORAL SOLUTION FOR SHEEP|MOXIDECTIN / TRICLABENDAZOLE
63770|PARASITICIDES|EXIFLUKE 240 ORAL FLUKICIDE FOR CATTLE|TRICLABENDAZOLE
64929|PARASITICIDES|YOUNG’S TRICLA 240 ORAL FLUKICIDE FOR CATTLE|TRICLABENDAZOLE

 

 

Regards

 

SL, 20120523