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Wormfax April 2012 | Time to treat for liver fluke! | Fasciolosis on the increase? | BIG fluke counts! and flukicide resistance
April is online.
Sources of data: State Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory, Menangle NSW; Veterinary Health Research, Armidale, NSW.
Highest count this month was in the Central North LHPA: WormTest average of ~ 22,500 eggs per gram (!00% Haemonchus on larval differentiation).
Time to treat for liver fluke!
Liver fluke disease on the increase? the conditions are right….
We are getting a few reports of liver fluke disease in livestock around the state, particularly because:
* its been a dry autumn in some areas, which means stock have headed for wetter/flukey areas on the farm for green pick.
* the last 2-3 years have been good for a build up in snail and fluke populations in many areas
* liver fluke has gone off the radar for some people with several years of dry or droughty years prior to the last 2-3 good years.
* resistance of fluke to flukicides may be a factor in some cases. (see article at https://wormmailinthecloud.wordpress.com/2012/05/21/time-to-drench-for-liver-f…
Spectacularly high liver fluke egg counts (and, in one case, flukicide resistance)
Mostly liver fluke counts are low, usually well below 100 eggs per gram of faeces, and often not making it into double figures.(Have a look at WormFax).
The highest counts I recall seeing were during a ‘reconnaissance liver fluke resistance survey’ we (NSW DPI + LHPAs) did about ~ 10 years: there was a flock (of Merinos) south of Walcha that had mean counts between 300 and 400 eggs per gram.
(By the way, in that survey, putative triclabendazole resistant fluke (on the basis of egg counts) was found in sheep on the Monaro (field operative: (former) District Vet, Dr Chris Haylock née Venning). In that survey, we tested triclabendazole and closantel. In addition to pre-trial egg counts, counts were also done at days zero, 28 and 56 post-treatment (on advice from FlukeMeister, Dr JC Boray).
But how is this for a high count?
NSW DPI Veterinary Pathologist Dr Zoe Spiers at the State Vet Lab at Menangle rang me about this case in alpacas in a tablelands region of NSW.
One animal had a count of 2217 fluke epg. (Report Number: M12-07437-F-V1). For me that is right up there with the Trichostrongylus sp burden (~ 60, 000 epg) found by Kylie Greentree in sheep, who was then (~ 2 years ago?) Veterinary Officer, Bourke.
Meanwhile Dr Gareth Kelly (Tech Services Manager, Virbac Australia) tells me the highest fluke egg counts he has seen this year were above 3000 in 4 grams of faeces (ie >750 fluke epg). The sheep were dying.
Possibly Gareth encountered these numbers while involved in an investigation of a fluke problem (March 2012) in East Friesian-Dohne cross sheep (55-60 kg liveweight) in the Berrigan area, approximately 100 km east of Deniliquin (NSW Riverina). The sheep were introduced from Deniliquin about 2 years previously.
(As Dr Boray points out in his factsheet on liver fluke, you can get liver fluke in irrigation areas as well as tablelands and coastal areas in the eats of NSW).
The sheep had been treated a number of times with flukicides before the efficacy of them was checked. Round worm egg counts were very low. As to liver fluke (F. hepatica), samples collected 21 days post-treatment showed:
* the untreated controls had a fluke of 3366 in 4 grams of faeces (ie ~840 fluke epg),
* the triclabendazole group had a count of ~750 epg (= 11% reduction in egg count), and
* the closantel treated group had a count of ~ 14 epg ( = ~ 98 % reduction in fluke egg count).(ParaSite Dx Lab (Benalla) # 12750)
Registered drenches containing triclabendazole (source: apvma.gov.au)
There is also a permit (see APVMA website) for triclabendazole in alpacas.
Product No|Category|Product Name|Actives
47675|PARASITICIDES|FASINEX 120 FLUKICIDE FOR CATTLE AND SHEEP|TRICLABENDAZOLE
47676|PARASITICIDES|FASINEX 50 FLUKICIDE FOR SHEEP CATTLE AND GOATS|TRICLABENDAZOLE
51262|PARASITICIDES|FASINEX 240 ORAL FLUKICIDE FOR CATTLE|TRICLABENDAZOLE
51308|PARASITICIDES|FLUKARE C FLUKICIDE FOR CATTLE AND SHEEP|TRICLABENDAZOLE
51309|PARASITICIDES|FLUKARE S FLUKICIDE FOR SHEEP, CATTLE AND GOATS|TRICLABENDAZOLE
52185|PARASITICIDES|FASINEX 100 ORAL FLUKICIDE FOR SHEEP, CATTLE AND GOATS|TRICLABENDAZOLE
52406|PARASITICIDES|FASIMEC CATTLE ORAL FLUKICIDE AND BROAD SPECTRUM DRENCH|IVERMECTIN / TRICLABENDAZOLE
52463|PARASITICIDES|TREMACIDE 120 FLUKICIDE FOR CATTLE AND SHEEP|TRICLABENDAZOLE
52467|PARASITICIDES|FASIMEC SHEEP ORAL FLUKICIDE AND BROAD SPECTRUM DRENCH|IVERMECTIN / TRICLABENDAZOLE
52715|PARASITICIDES|FLUKAMEC ANTHELMINTIC FOR SHEEP|ABAMECTIN / TRICLABENDAZOLE
52865|PARASITICIDES|FASICARE 120 FLUKICIDE FOR CATTLE AND SHEEP|TRICLABENDAZOLE
52899|PARASITICIDES|FLUKAZOLE C COMBINATION FLUKE AND ROUNDWORM DRENCH FOR CATTLE|OXFENDAZOLE / TRICLABENDAZOLE
53074|PARASITICIDES|FLUKAZOLE S COMBINATION FLUKE AND ROUNDWORM DRENCH FOR SHEEP|OXFENDAZOLE / TRICLABENDAZOLE
53520|PARASITICIDES|COOPERS PARAMAX-F BROAD SPECTRUM ORAL ANTHELMINTIC AND FLUKICIDE FOR SHEEP|IVERMECTIN / TRICLABENDAZOLE
54108|PARASITICIDES|FLUKAMEC PLUS SELENIUM ANTHELMINTIC FOR SHEEP|ABAMECTIN / SELENIUM AS SODIUM SELENATE / TRICLABENDAZOLE
55524|PARASITICIDES|CYDECTIN PLUS FLUKE ORAL DRENCH AND LIVER FLUKE TREATMENT FOR SHEEP|MOXIDECTIN / TRICLABENDAZOLE
55587|PARASITICIDE+NUTRITIONAL|FLUKARE S PLUS SELENIUM FLUKICIDE FOR SHEEP, CATTLE AND GOATS|SELENIUM AS SODIUM SELENATE / TRICLABENDAZOLE
56465|PARASITICIDES|GENESIS ULTRA POUR-ON ROUNDWORM, LIVER FLUKE & EXTERNAL PARASITICIDE FOR CATTLE|ABAMECTIN / TRICLABENDAZOLE
56706|PARASITICIDE+NUTRITIONAL|FLUKAZOLE C PLUS SELENIUM COMBINATION FLUKE AND ROUNDWORM DRENCH FOR CATTLE AND SHEEP|OXFENDAZOLE / SELENIUM AS SODIUM SELENATE / TRICLABENDAZOLE
56725|PARASITICIDES|FLUKARE C PLUS SELENIUM FLUKICIDE FOR CATTLE, SHEEP AND GOATS|SELENIUM AS SODIUM SELENATE / TRICLABENDAZOLE
58529|PARASITICIDES|YOUNG’S TRICLA 120 FLUKICIDE FOR CATTLE AND SHEEP|TRICLABENDAZOLE
58560|PARASITICIDES|YOUNG’S TRICLAMEC CATTLE ORAL FLUKICIDE AND BROAD SPECTRUM DRENCH|IVERMECTIN / TRICLABENDAZOLE
58561|PARASITICIDES|YOUNGS TRICLAMEC SHEEP ORAL FLUKICIDE AND BROAD SPECTRUM DRENCH|IVERMECTIN / TRICLABENDAZOLE
58611|PARASITICIDES|COOPERS SOVEREIGN POUR-ON FLUKICIDE AND ANTHELMINTIC FOR CATTLE|IVERMECTIN / TRICLABENDAZOLE
58971|PARASITICIDES|FASIMEC CATTLE POUR-ON FLUKICIDE AND BROAD SPECTRUM ANTHELMINTIC|ABAMECTIN / TRICLABENDAZOLE
58978|PARASITICIDES|YOUNG’S TRICLAMEC CATTLE POUR-ON FLUKICIDE AND BROAD SPECTRUM ANTHELMINTIC|ABAMECTIN / TRICLABENDAZOLE
58982|PARASITICIDES|YOUNG’S TRICLA 50 FLUKICIDE FOR SHEEP, CATTLE AND GOATS|TRICLABENDAZOLE
60489|PARASITICIDES|EXIFLUKE ORAL FLUKICIDE FOR SHEEP, CATTLE AND GOATS|TRICLABENDAZOLE
60617|PARASITICIDES|WSD LV TRICLABENDAZOLE ORAL FLUKICIDE FOR SHEEP, CATTLE AND GOATS|TRICLABENDAZOLE
62708|PARASITICIDES|AVOMEC PLUS POUR-ON ROUNDWORM, LIVER FLUKE AND EXTERNAL PARASITICIDE FOR CATTLE|ABAMECTIN / TRICLABENDAZOLE
63506|PARASITICIDES|CYDECTIN PLUS FLUKE ORAL SOLUTION FOR SHEEP|MOXIDECTIN / TRICLABENDAZOLE
63770|PARASITICIDES|EXIFLUKE 240 ORAL FLUKICIDE FOR CATTLE|TRICLABENDAZOLE
64929|PARASITICIDES|YOUNG’S TRICLA 240 ORAL FLUKICIDE FOR CATTLE|TRICLABENDAZOLE
For those with liver fluke on their farms, now is the time for the most important liver fluke drench of the year.
With above average seasons in many areas (of NSW) for the last 2 years or so, liver fluke (Fasciola hepatica) numbers have built up. There have already been reports of liver fluke disease in sheep and other livestock, some with low liver fluke egg counts (typically less than 100 eggs per gram (epg) of faeces) and some with spectacularly high counts e.g. over 2000 fluke epg in an alpaca.
About now (May) it is getting too cold (below 10 degrees over night) for liver fluke eggs to develop, so now is a good time to strategically drench sheep with a highly efficient flukicide (ie triclabendazole-based) to clean sheep out. Cattle producers also have the option of Nitromec(R) (ivermectin+clorsulon+nitroxynil), another highly efficient flukicide.
Remember however that, just like barber’s pole worm (Haemonchus) in sheep, the infective stages of fluke (metacercariae),which were produced in summer and autumn, will survive over winter, especially if moisture is present. So, as with barber’s pole worm, it may be too cold for the eggs over winter, but the infective stages produced in autumn will survive, albeit in declining numbers, through to spring. In the case of fluke, these infective larval stages are found in wetter areas on a farm, where the intermediate host snails are found.
Come spring, sheep could still have some liver fluke in them, even if they were treated with a highly efficient flukicide in May. Firstly, even the best flukicides do not kill every single fluke. In Australia ‘effective’ in the case of flukicides is defined as 90% kill or better. (The yardstick for broad-spectrum drenches is better than a 95% kill of target roundworms). Also, some of the very young fluke (harder to kill) will be left behind after the May drench. By Spring these will be adult flukes, living in the bile ducts, munching away, producing eggs, causing protein and blood loss, leading to clinical signs similar to haemonchosis (‘bottlejaw’, anaemia), but with the possible addition of jaundice as well.
There are two other reasons the sheep may have some fluke come Spring. One is that they picked up some metacercariae over winter from pasture. The other is that you have resistance to the flukicide you used.
Yes, there are cases of liver fluke resistant to triclabendazole and to closantel, although as yet we really do not have a good handle on how common this is.
If you want to check how well your triclabendazole drench worked, do a fluke egg count 28 days after they were drenched (and preferably a count on the day of drenching as well). The reason for waiting 28 days is that it can take this long for all the eggs left inside the liver (the bile ducts) to clear from the system.
In passing I should mention that Charles Sturt University at Wagga is trialling an immunodiagnostic test (an ELISA) that detects liver fluke antigen in faeces. They hope this will be useful as a fluke resistance test. If you are a cattle producer, and you are interested, contact your local Virbac rep. (Virbac is assisting CSU in this work).”
Protection against reinfection (days)
|Active ingredient||Trade name||Barber’s pole worm||Black scour worm||Small brown stomach worm|
|Oral||Moxidectin||Cydectin®||not less than 141||No claim for persistent activity||not less than 14|
|Injectable||Moxidectin||Eweguard®, Weanerguard®2||not less than 21||not less than 7||Up to 21 days|
|Cydectin Long Acting for Sheep||not less than 91 days||up to 49 days||Not less than 91 days|
|Capsule3||Ivermectin||Ivomec Maximiser®||100 days against susceptible worm populations.|
|Dynamax/Bionic combination capsules|
|Closantel4-based||Closantel (7.5mg/kg BWt)||Various brands||28||No effect, but is effective against liver fluke (adults and immatures)
|Abamectin + closantel (10mg/kg BWt)||Avomec Duel (Merial)/ Genesis Xtra (Ancare)||up to 6 weeks|
Notes:‘Long-acting’ products have a claim for extended activity against one or more worm species. Sometimes this category is divided into ‘mid-length’ (generally 7-28 days) and ‘long-acting’ (longer than ‘mid-length’, up to 100 days). This subdivision has been done, for example, for the purposes of development (2011/2012) of the WormBoss Drench Decision Guides and Regional Programs 1 Cydectin plus Tape, unlike other Cydectin formulations (Cydectin, Cydectin plus Fluke etc), has no claim for persistent activity against barber’s pole worm. It pays to read the label. 2 Eweguard / Weanerguard also includes a 6-in-1 vaccine (clostridial diseases plus cheesy gland). 3 Capsules and long-acting injectables: Do a WormTest 10-14 days after dosing (in case of severe resistance) then midway through the protection period, then 2-3 weeks after the product’s claimed period of protection. Unlike ivermectin capsules, albendazole (ABZ, BZ, or ‘white’) capsules can be used when resistance is present, unless the resistance is severe. However, it is important to clean out resistance worms with an effective drench or combination of drenches (‘primer’) at the time the capsules are administered. More generally, given the current (2012) prevalence and severity of resistance, primer and exit or tail cutter drenches should be considered when using any long-acting product (capsules or injectables), with ‘tail-cutters’ being given 2-3 weeks after the end of the protection period. Dynamax(Merial)/Bionic(Ancare) combination capsules deliver their actives simultaneously, not sequentially/alternating. Given the prevalence of ML resistance now (2012), experts generally do not recommend ivermectin-based sheep drenches. Abamectin is preferred over ivermectin because of its higher potency. 4 Closantel is a narrow spectrum drench with activity restricted to barber’s pole worm, liver fluke and nasal bot. There are also closantel + BZ or ML products on the market. The Merial and Ancare products listed above deliver Closantel at 10 mg/kg bodyweight). Label claims of course are for susceptible isolates (strains) of various species of worms. In the beginning there was WormBoss? see https://wormmailinthecloud.wordpress.com/2012/05/10/wrml-paraboss-infopest-myopia/ ..but before that (in pre-history?), there was SCIPS (Prof Nick Sangster along with others, with support from AWI). WormBoss perhaps evolved from SCIPS? Is SCOPS (a UK website) also a descendant of SCIPS? The SCIPS website is still extant (and very helpful), but in some areas is dated. SCIPS does not refer to an Australian icon (Skippy the bush kangaroo…) but stands for ‘sustainable control of internal parasites of sheep’. UK Gets First Dual Active Worming Product http://www.scops.org.uk/news-detail.php?NewsID=17 And it’s Startect (derquantel+abamectin; Pfizer). I think it is almost ‘here’ (Australia). Coming up…. A spectacularly high fluke egg count in an alpaca…. plus impacts of worms on young cattle….. Regards, SL