WRML. WormFaxNSW January 2013. Info on ag and vet chemicals

To: WormMail list. (recip. undisclosed)

The January issue of WormFax is on-line.

For a summary of sheep WormTest results and explanatory notes see:


Over the last month, the eastern quarter of NSW, especially the north-eastern corner, has got above average rain, 150-200% of average in places. The rest of the state has tended to be below average rain wise. But the 2-3 months before that saw most of the state getting below average rain.

Worm eggs, not least Haemonchus (barber’s pole worm), prefers smaller falls frequently (e.g. 15 mm plus per week) rather than big falls once every blue moon. Much of the rain of late – for those areas getting it – has come as big falls with storms. However, with follow up rain, worms could become an issue more generally, despite the slow start to the season worm-wise.

Even though worm egg counts around the state have generally been low to moderate, there have been some flocks in many districts returning reasonably high egg counts – for example, WormTest averages up around a few thousand eggs per gram (usually but not always mostly Haemonchus), with some individual animals with counts up to 17,000.

So, while WECs might be generally low in your district, or on the property next door, you still might get caught with your pants down (so to speak).

As to liver fluke, there has been a decent smattering of positive tests for liver fluke eggs in the traditionally flukey districts. Perhaps sheep are moving into ‘flukey ‘areas on some farms chasing green pick if conditions have been dry.

In short – yes you’ve heard it before – Don’t guess, WormTest. You might avert a disaster, or you might save yourself some unnecessary drenching, and selection for drench resistance. And of course, if you do need to drench, do a DrenchCheck 10-14 days after the drench. And you’ve heard this before too: the most expensive drench is the one that doesn’t work.

More information

WormTest: http://www.wormboss.com.au/tests-tools/tests/checking-a-mob-of-sheep-for-worms.php

DrenchCheckDay10: http://www.wormboss.com.au/tests-tools/tests/checking-for-drench-resistance.php

Zoetis, formerly Pfizer Animal Health

Pfizer Animal Health is now Zoetis.




I am told that, from the beginning of March, Infopest will be available FREE on the web, supported by ads and sponsorship. No more DVDs or paid subscriptions.

When launched, you will need to go to www.infopest.com.au and log on with email and password. Labels, permits and MSDSs will be accessible; and continuously updated.

The actual launch date for the new platform has yet to be announced by GrowCom.

Another source of information on vet and ag chemicals: PUBCRIS at APVMA: www.apvma.gov.au

Of course WormBoss has a great drench database relating to sheep. www.wormboss.com.au





WRML. WormBoss can help

To: WormMail list.

WormBoss can help

Stephen Love, Veterinarian/State Coordinator-Internal Parasites
NSW DPI, Armidale 19.2.13

I am biased of course, but the NEW, revamped WormBoss, launched on 21.11.12, is great. Have you had a look?

We ‘experts’ keep rabbiting on about WormTesting, for example. Regular worm egg count monitoring is one of the cheapest, best and least utilised tools for smart worm control in sheep. (Don’t guess, WormTest).

But, what is WormTest, and how do you go about it? The section in WormBoss on this tells you all you need to know.

Go to wormboss.com.au and click on ‘Test and Tools’.

If WormTest and the Drench Decision Guide say you need to drench, where can you get unbiased, reliable info? For drenches, click on – yes, you guessed it – ‘Drenches’. For Drench Decision Guides, go to ‘Your Program’.

When you do drench your sheep, we or other advisors will then badger you about checking to see if the drench actually worked, just like my dentist does about flossing my teeth. Remember, the most expensive drench is the one that doesn’t work.

So, how do you do it? (doing a DrenchCheck, I mean, not flossing your teeth, although maybe we could add a section on that as well).

To learn about DrenchCheck go to ‘Tests and Tools’, then look under ‘Tests’.

What program is appropriate for your district? ‘Your Program’ on the front page of wormboss.com.au is the place to go. By the way, these regional worm control programs can be saved as PDF files, or printed (as can the Drench Decision Guides). The main part is about a dozen pages in each case, plus another several pages of really useful info in appendixes.

Who put these programs together? The WormBoss team with major input from top guns in each region of Australia, including parasitologists and vets from universities, the private sector, such as consultants and pharmaceutical companies, and the public sector including state departments of agriculture, and, in NSW, veterinarians from the Livestock Health and Pest Authorities.

What you have here is the best advice on best practice, presented in an attractive and user-friendly way.

There is more! I have only given a few examples here. Take WormBoss for a test drive yourself.

I love the NEW WormBoss. You will love the way it can save you bucket loads of money and angst.

WormBoss News

The next monthly edition will be out soon. Have you subscribed? Subscribe at wormboss.com.au




WRML. Drenches – sundry and various

To WormMail list (recip. undisclosed). WRML.20130213. Drenches – sundry and various

Drenches – sundry and various

The only new active we have on the market in Australia (AU) is of course the broad-spectrum anthelmintic for sheep, monepantel (‘Zolvix’, Novartis), which belongs to the AADs (amino-acetonitrile derivatives).

The release of ‘Startect’, already available in the southern hemisphere in South Africa and New Zealand, and the UK (where it is the first dual-active wormer), is still awaited in AU. SA and NZ are currently ahead in rugby as well. (Hope springs eternal (for macropod supporters)).

‘Startect’ (Pfizer) is composed of the novel anthelmintic derquantel (a spiroindole), combined with abamectin (an avermectin, a subgroup within the macrocyclic lactones (MLs). (Moxidectin is in the milbemycin sub-group)).

By they way, you can get up-to-date info on sheep drenches in AU at the newly released (21.11.12) and revamped WormBoss: www.wormboss.com.au (Did I mention 21.11.12 is a palindrome? 🙂

Other newcomers to the Australian (AU) sheep drench market are older drugs ‘repackaged’, albeit using fancy chemistry, but are nonetheless welcome and useful additions.

These include ‘Napfix’ (Jurox) which was released a few months ago. Napfix is a combination of naphthalophos+abamectin+albendazole.

‘Sequel’ (abamectin+levamisole; Ancare) is about to be released. While using a triple broad-spectrum would arguably be more desirable, Sequel apparently will be positioned, and at quite a competitive price I believe, to get more farmers (who baulk at the price of triples) off ‘singles’ (single active broad-spectrum drenches) and onto a combination.

Competition is good: I believe the price of ‘triples’ has gone down of late by up to 10-20% per 50kg sheep dose. e.g. from roughly the 40-45 cents down to 35-40 cents. For a list of ‘triples’, see WormBoss.

Still, the most expensive drench is the one that doesn’t work.

Drench resistance is steadily getting (even) worse. The biggest changes I think over the last decade have been increasing resistance of sheep nematodes to the MLs, and increasing resistance (once uncommon) of Haemonchus to levamisole. (In Australia, resistance of the ‘scour worms’ (Trichostrongylus and Teladorsagia(Ostertagia)) species in small ruminants to LEV has been common for 20+ years).

ML resistance was once common only in places like the New England region of north eastern NSW (Haemonchus), or the south western part of Western Australia (Ostertagia/Teladorsagia), and some other winter rainfall areas (e.g. Kangaroo Island).

But recent work by District Veterinarians (DVs) in NSW has shown that resistance, including resistance of the MLs (avermectins as well as the milbemycin, moxidectin) is now common in many if not most areas. This includes the Wagga Wagga area (work by DVs Amy Shergold and Tony Morton and others [1]), the south west slopes (more or less) of NSW ( DVs Eliz. Braddon (Young), Belinda Edmonstone (Forbes) and Katharine Marsh (formerly of Condobolin) [2]) and the central west (Dubbo area; DV Evelyn Walker and others [3]).

A recent analysis by Rad Nielsen of VHR has shown that resistance in the New England is worsening [4]. See also Love, 2011 [5]. (An update by Playford and others is pending).

You could argue that, as a general rule, all sheep producers in Australia should be using multi-active broad-spectrum sheep drenches. Of course, from a theoretical point of view, such combinations have the greatest effect in delaying selection for resistance if used from day one, when resistance to each of the component actives is rare or non-existent. From a (short-term) economic point of view, this could be a hard sell.

Still, a somewhat less than perfect combination can still be a good thing. e.g. a combination of say drench A (say 95% effective (optimal is >99%), drench B (say 80% effective) and drench C (say 50% effective), all unrelated actives with similar spectra of activity and persistency, will theoretically give an overall efficacy of (95% + 4% + 0.5%=) 99.5% [6]. ‘Better than a poke in the eye with a blunt stick.

However, we are now at the stage that many farmers, need to use ‘multi-actives’ just to achieve moderately high efficacy. Added to that is the fact that most producers do not accurately know what drenches work on their properties. So, from a best bet point of view, in the absence of data, multi-actives are a good option. (But even they are not always a sure thing, given the state of resistance).

If you wanted Zolvix alive (high efficacy) for as long as possible, a good option would be to use it in rapid rotation with combinations that are still highly effective on your farm [7]. Lets say ML and organophosphate (OP) based combinations were still highly effective. A plan might be to use Zolvix, then (at the next drench) naphthalophos (NAP) + benzimidazole (BZ) + levamisole (LEV), then an ML-based triple eg ML+BZ+LEV. Other combinations could be used of course. Even better – short-term economics (and increased work load) aside ! – you would not use even Zolvix on its own, but you would use it concurrently with other unrelated active(s).

A word on organophosphate drenches

I think we are lucky in Australia to have OP drenches, despite the extra care they require (lower safety index). They, and their combinations, have provided an alternative to the MLs, and now an extra alternative to Zolvix.

Naphthalophos is the most famous. Bayer brought out NAP in one form or another many years ago. The first brand perhaps was Bayer Summer Management Drench, back around the time thiabendazole was released (and that was in the 1960s). Then there was Rametin H ( a 7.5 ml of the made-up drench for all sheep). H stood for Haemonchus I believe. Then there was Rametin HLV (Haemonchus-low volume); a 5 ml dose for all sheep if memory serves. (I still remember mixing up the drench from the powder (trying not to inhale) from plastic bags inside a tin (I am sure I have no nasal bot ;-)). We knew of course that with all these flat dose rates, there was also useful efficacy against ‘scour worms’ (as defined above) in sheep up to say 20-25 kg. In the 1980s, using information from Dr Keith Dash (‘father of WormKill’) I started including Rametin HLV at a dose rate of 30-35 mg/kg bodyweight in drench resistance trials (and only killed one sheep. I think my off-sider did it :-).

NAP on its own is highly effective (~100%) against adult Haemonchus, and has lower but useful activity (~ 70-90%, but variable ) against Trichostrongylus and Teladorsagia (Ostertagia) spp and immature Haemonchus. This is one reason why it should be used in combination with unrelated actives.

To my knowledge the two recorded (peer reviewed journals) cases of confirmed NAP-resistant Australian worm isolates are Green (Haemonchus), and Le Jambre et al (NAP-resistant Trichostrongylus (inferred) [8]. From time to time, and more often in recent years, lower than expected efficacy of OPs, alone or in combination, has been seen in the field. This is mentioned for example by Love (2011; ‘Declining efficacy of NAP+BZ (against Trich) sometimes observed, some below 30% WECR ‘)[5] and recently Nielsen indicated that low efficacy (lower than previously seen) of NAP against Trich/Ost is now common in NSW’s New England [4].

Rametin in its current form (the powder now comes in the mixing drum) of course is given at approximately a 35 mg/kg. Most often these days it is used in combination with other broad-spectrum drenches, which is a good idea.

Other manufacturers now have NAP-based products, including Virbac (‘Combat’), Jurox (‘Napfix’), and Agvantage, who market ‘Pole-Vault’ (presumably it gets the sheep air-borne).

The other OP-based sheep drench on the market in Australia is ‘Colleague’ (Coopers), a proprietary mix of pyraclofos and albendazole.

There was a permit until recent years for the use of ‘Neguvon’ (trichlorfon, Bayer) in Australia against Haemonchus in goats.

I understand that OP drenches are not available in NZ nor are likely to be.

Cattle drenches

Things are afoot here too.

Firstly there is increasing evidence that resistance is an issue in cattle nematodes in Australia. (There are cases of flukicide (triclabendazole) resistance too).

Added to that is evidence that route of administration can make a difference to efficacy (and possibly therefore selection of drench resistance). The recently published work of Leathwick and Miller (NZ) [9] is a case in point, with oral moxidectin being significantly more efficacious than injectable or pour-on (topical) moxidectin.

Just when you thought cattle drenches couldn’t get any more persistent, ‘Long Range’ (eprinomectin injectable, Merial) has hit the scene and there was a recent special edition of Veterinary Parasitology on this drench. Long Range apparently has an extended activity of 100-150 days depending on the parasite species. Interestingly the product produces two peaks of the drug in the animal, apparently by way of special polymers. The company says the product will be produce no more selection for resistance than other products because the times when drug levels are sub-therapeutic are relatively short. Whether the comparison is to other long-acting products on the market, or to relatively short-acting products as well, is unclear to me. Also, what is sub-therapeutic depends on the resistance status of target parasite populations. Once resistance begins to merge, there presumably will be increasingly longer periods of time when this (or any other drug) has sub-therapeutic levels in the animal.

If Long Range comes to Australia, perhaps it will be marketed here as ‘Long Reach’ (after the iconic town in regional Queensland. Ford named one of its utes ‘Longreach’). ‘Long Reach Two Peaks’ might be another option. (I expect to be head hunted by marketing departments of large pharmacos any time now; or perhaps just hunted).

Further to resistant cattle nematodes and the question of route of administration, my colleagues in NZ inform me that oral multi-active cattle drenches are not only available in that country, but very popular as well. (They not only do rugby well).

(To understand combinations, mixtures or both, see here: http://www.wormboss.com.au/news/articles/drenches/understanding-drenches-mixtures-combinations-and-both.php)

Here is some information from NZ veterinarian Andrew Dowling (PGG Wrightson), used with permission:

“…Our biggest selling triple drench for sheep and cattle (1ml/10kg) (over here) is called Alliance.” “Alliance is the biggest selling triple for PGW, 27% of our oral doses sold are now triples, up from 18% last year.”

“Here are some resent price comparisons.

The new thing here are injectable combinations for those farmers that do not want to orally drench (and there are plenty of them!) ”

Indicative prices in NZ (courtesy of Andrew Dowling):

pack size dose per 250kg dose pack meat whp milk whp Retail retail per 250kg
EDGE , doramectin plus levamisole inj 1000 12.5 80 21 35 $299 $3.25
Outlaw /Eclipse 2500 12.5 200 42 42 $669 $2.91
Cydectin PO 17L 17000 25 680 0 0 $1,659 $2.12
Cydectin PO 5.5L 5500 25 220 0 0 $599 $2.37
Cydectin Injection 500 5 100 35 35 $295 $2.57
Alliance 10L oral triple 10000 25 400 10 35 $665 $1.45
Converge 10L, oral abamectin plus levamisole 10000 25 400 10 35 $519 $1.13
Scanda 10L oral bz lev 10000 25 400 10 35 $326 $0.71
Combi Cattle PO; oxfendazole plus levamisole 5500 25 220 35 35 $603 $2.38

‘Outlaw’/ ‘Eclipse’ are abamectin+ levamisole cattle POs (pour ons/topical drenches) in NZ.

Meanwhile in Australia…

The last time I checked, the only ML cattle drenches in AU available as oral drenches were ivermectin-flukicide (triclabendazole) mixtures (Fasimec, Triclamec). Oral formulations of BZ and LEV-based drenches are somewhat easier to find.

The one combination cattle drench I know of in AU is Eclipse (Merial), which is a pour-on containing abamectin + levamisole.

Perhaps oral formulations of combination cattle drenches are in the pipeline (possibly vying with Startect to see daylight….?)


[1] https://wormmailinthecloud.wordpress.com/2013/02/04/wrml-drench-resistance-tests-in-the-wagga-area-eastern-riverina-nsw-hume-lhpa-sundry/

[2] https://wormmailinthecloud.wordpress.com/2012/07/26/wrml-lachlan-lhpa-nsw-drench-resistance-sheep-worms-survey-preliminaryresults/

[3] (Walker E et al. Pending). To be presented at the District Veterinarians’ Conference, Armidale, NSW. March 2013. May appear in a later WormMail.

[4] (Nielsen). https://wormmailinthecloud.wordpress.com/2012/11/02/wrml-update-drench-resistance-of-sheep-worms-new-england-region-nsw-au/

[5] (Love, 2011). https://wormmailinthecloud.wordpress.com/2011/11/07/update-prevalence-of-drench-resistant-sheep-worms-australia-asv-conference-paper-2011/

[6] “a combination of say drench A (say 95% effective (optimal is >99%), drench B (say 80% effective) and drench C (say 50% effective), all unrelated actives with similar spectra of activity and persistency, will theoretically give an overall efficacy of (95% + 4% + 0.5%=) 99.5% ” i.e. (100-5) + (5 x .80) + (1 x o.5) = 99.5

[7] (Dobson et al) https://wormmailinthecloud.wordpress.com/2011/07/22/wrml-dobson-papers-resistance-monepantel-and-refugia/

[8] Green PE, Forsyth BA, Rowan KJ and Payne G (1981). The isolation of a field strain of Haemonchus contortus in Queensland showing multiple anthelmintic resistance. Australian Veterinary Journal 57(2): 79–84.
Le Jambre LF, Geoghegan J and Lyndal-Murphy M (2005). Characterization of moxidectin resistant Trichostrongylus colubriformis and Haemonchus contortus. Veterinary Parasitology 128: 83–90.

[9] Leathwick DM and Miller CM, 2013. Efficacy of oral, injectable and pour-on formulations of moxidectin against gastrointestinal nematodes in cattle in New Zealand. Veterinary Parasitology 191 (2013) 293– 300. doi: 10.1016/j.vetpar.2012.09.020. Epub 2012 Sep 24



NSW DPI e&oe.



Interesting photos:


The Haircut

“One day a florist went to a barber for a haircut. After the cut, he asked about his bill, and the barber replied, ‘I cannot accept money from you; I’m doing community service this week.’ The florist was pleased and left the shop. When the barber went to open his shop the next morning, there was a ‘thank you’ card and a dozen roses waiting for him at his door.

Later, a cop comes in for a haircut, and when he tries to pay his bill, the barber again replied, ‘I cannot accept money from you; I’m doing community service this week.’ The cop was happy and left the shop. The next morning when the barber went to open up, there was a ‘thank you’ card and a dozen doughnuts waiting for him at his door.

Then an MP came in for a haircut, and when he went to pay his bill, the barber again replied, ‘I cannot accept money from you. I’m doing community service this week.’ The MP was very happy and left the shop. The next morning, when the barber went to open up, there were a dozen MPs lined up waiting for a free haircut.

And that illustrates the fundamental difference between the citizens of our country and the politicians who run it.
Both politicians and nappies need to be changed often and for the same reason?

If you don’t forward this you have no sense of humour. Nothing bad will happen, however, you must live with yourself knowing that laughter is not in your future. Now send it to everyone you know….”

(Don’t send it. We all hate chain emails)

(The views above do not necessarily reflect that of the editor and certainly not of his/her employer. The situation may be different in your country: it is here… (<cough>)).

BBC News – Coca-Cola drinking ‘linked to New Zealander’s death


Up to 10 litres per day ( = 1 kg sugar and approx 1000 mg caffeine, per day (Soft drinks and fruit juices typically are ~ 10% sugar)) The average westerner has ~ 1 kg sugar per week(~50 kg per year), and this is ~ 30 times the consumption of people ~ 100 years ago. That’s progress.

For an interesting read on sugar, the book (‘Pure White and Deadly”) by the late Prof Yudkin, with a foreword by Prof Robert Lustig, has recently been republished. (And for South African readers, your very own Prof Tim Noakes now holds similar views).

I think I need a chocolate thick-shake.

Palindrome : literally ‘again way’


WRML. Drench resistance tests in the Wagga area (eastern Riverina) NSW (Hume LHPA) + sundry

To WormMail mailing list

Drench resistance tests (sheep) – Wagga Wagga area, southern NSW

Many of you receive WormBoss News each month and will have seen this:

Amy Shergold, Wagga Wagga, (amy.shergold) and Tony Morton, Wagga Wagga (tony.morton) – Hume LHPA

"The hot dry conditions of late spring and early summer saw a return to good conditions for worm control. Unfortunately while good for worm control, the hot, dry, windy weather was also associated with bushfires and loss of pasture quality.

A number of drench resistance trials were conducted across the Hume region last year. Qualitative results for eight properties near Wagga Wagga are shown below:

Property Moxidectin Ivermectin Lev/BZ Triple Rametin/
1 R R
2 R
3 R R
4 R
5 R R R
6 R R
7 R R
8 R

R = resistance (<95% overall efficacy); — drench not used in trial Lev = levamisole BZ=benzimidazole Triple = a macrocyclic lactone (ML) active+BZ+Lev Rametin = naphthalophos Abamectin/derquantel is ‘Startect’ (Pfizer): not yet available in Australia. (‘Not sure why that column is blank. Top secret? – SL)

Ivermectin resistance was found on all eight properties and overall efficacy ranged from 15 to 83%. The resistant worm species varied between farms but included Ostertagia (small brown stomach), Haemonchus (barber’s pole) and Trichostrongylus (black scour) worms. The emerging issue of ivermectin resistant Trichostrongylus species was seen on five of eight properties based on larval examination. This general trend was also consistently repeated in similar trials conducted from our other offices at Albury and Gundagai. On the whole moxidectin performed well; however, in light of the profound ivermectin resistance it should be used prudently. Resistance to white/clear combinations remains common as expected.

These results should help those individual producers concerned with their drench rotations. What happens when you combine a drench test, use of an effective product and good farm management? An example is a property where the six ewe mobs were drenched in early November as pasture hayed-off with a drench proven to be effective on that property; the highest count in six mobs monitored in early January was only 32 epg."

Comments (SL):

*Resistance is so widespread now (see here) it is even more essential ! (yes, a tautology) for each producer to test and see what drenches work on their property. See here.

*Ivermectin might be a good benchmark for doing resistance tests but is no longer recommended (on its own, or in combinations) for use in sheep in Australia, because resistance to the macrocyclic lactones (MLs, mectins) is now quite widespread, and ivermectin, the first of the MLs to be launched, is the least potent of them. If you are going to use a short-acting ML, then abamectin is a better choice, because it is more potent (better at killing resistant worms). And, if you are going to use abamectin (or any other drench), seriously consider using it in combination with an other unrelated drench active(s). Why? : efficacy and resistance management.

* Resistance of Trichostrongylus (black scour worm; stomach hair worm; "Trichs") has been slower to appear than that of Haemonchus (barber’s pole worm) and Ostertagia (Teladorsagia) (small brown stomach worm). There is more and more field evidence that ML-resistant ‘Trichs’ are no longer rare. A sticking point is that few field cases have yet to be confirmed by identification of adult worms. Identification of ‘Trichs’ vs ‘Osties" based on larvae is not 100% reliable.

* If there is so much resistance ‘out there’ – and there is! – more farmers have to be fair dinkum about biosecurity when it comes to keeping out resistant worms (and other things e.g. OJD, footrot, drug-resistant lice etc). See here and here (information on ‘quarantine"):

* It’s better to use unrelated drench actives in combination than in a rotation. But, you can rotate combinations eg. in no particular order: a naphthalophos-based triple combination (NAP + BZ +LEV), then ‘Zolvix’ (monepantel), or ‘Startect’ (abamectin+derquantel; when it becomes available), then a ML-based triple (e.g. ML+BZ+LEV). OK, not all actives are being rotated, but some are. (Nothing is perfect, me and thee excepted). Get advice on the best approach for your situation.

‘Sounds expensive? The most expensive drench is the one that doesn’t work, or the one that was unnecessary (i.e. a WormTest would have shown that a drench was unnecessary).

* Don’t guess, WormTest.

A case in point (the simplified version) : A colleague is working with a producer [in a barber’s
pole worm
endemic area] who has about 5000 Merino weaners. Has been ‘burnt’ in the past by barber’s pole worm. He is itching to get into these weaners and drench them. My colleague persuaded the producer to do a WormTest. The highest egg count was 240 eggs per gram of faeces (epg), there were quite a few zeros, and the average strongyle epg was 84. Larval culture indicated most of the worms were barber’s pole worm. This is a very low count by any one’s standards.

My colleague is trying to convince the farmer to do another WormTest soon rather than drench.

So, let’s say it would cost say 50c (drench + labour) to drench the weaners. That’s $2500 worth. The farmer has not done drench resistance testing in recent years, so he/she doesn’t even know if the drench would have worked.

A WormTest with culture costs around $75. Let’s say four were done: that’s $300. That’s a whole lot less than $2500.

What if WormTesting indicated drenching was necessary. Say drench costs 25c per sheep, that’s $1250 worth of drench for 5000 animals. A ‘quick and dirty’ test (DrenchCheckDay10) to see if the drench was effective would cost two WormTests, one on the day of drenching , or within several days before, plus another 10-14 days after drenching. Say, $150 worth, if cultures were done as well. Again that seems more like an investment than a cost.

Subscribe to WormBoss: http://www.wormboss.com.au/

Some non-worm items that may be of interest:

* Healthcare’s trick coin

http://www.nytimes.com/2013/02/02/opinion/health-cares-trick-coin.html?hpw&_r=1& Article by Dr Ben Goodacre

* Machu Picchu – 16 Gigapixels http://skift.com/2012/11/15/this-may-be-the-best-photograph-of-machu-picchu-ever-posted-on-the-internet/

* Indirect Tracking of Drop Bears Using GNSS Technology. Volker Janssen. Australian Geographer .Volume 43, Issue 4, 2012 pages 445-452 http://ecite.utas.edu.au/82194