WRML.Hume (southern NSW) drench resistance tests-sheep-Amy Shergold. Last days for LHPAs.

To WormMail list.

Attached are results from Dr Amy Shergold for worm egg count reduction tests (sheep) performed across the Hume region of southern NSW (Wagga, Gundagai, Albury etc).

Amy is a district veterinarian with the Hume LHPA: http://www.lhpa.org.au/districts/hume

Also attached as a PDF are excerpts from a presentation done at Cowra recently which summarises other recent drench resistance testing (sheep) in various regions of NSW, along with a recent overview of the situation Australia-wide.

Source: http://www.lhpa.org.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0011/279245/Hume_LHPA_A4_Div_map.pdf

Livestock Health and Pest Authorities will be absorbed (if that is the correct word) into the new Local Land Services in the coming months: http://www.dpi.nsw.gov.au/locallandservices

LHPAs were previously known as Rural Lands Protection Boards, and before that, Pastures Protection Boards (for 100 years or so). They had their genesis in the NSW sheep scab eradication campaign of the 19th century, quite a remarkable achievement in my opinion.

See https://wormmailinthecloud.wordpress.com/2012/09/29/wrml-history-of-pastures-protection-boards-plus-other-incl-climate-dogs-and-ectoparasiticides/



Shergold-Amy. 2013-07.Hume drench resistance tests-sheep- paper.pdf

Love S.201305-update worm control sheep ASAP-SheepCRC seminar Cowra – excerpt.pdf


WRML.20130729. WormFaxNSW-June. Celebrity parasitologists from NZ. Hume WECRT results (Shergold) to come.

To WormMail (WRML) list. WRML.20130729. WormFaxNSW-June. Celebrity parasitologists from NZ. Hume WECRT results (Shergold) to come.

WormFax NSW June 2013

The latest issue of WormFax NSW (a summary of WormTest results from two major labs in NSW) is online.


Celebrity parasitologists from NZ

Perhaps the first in a photo-series, here is a picture of Dr Paul Mason, now a consultant livestock (and other?) parasitologist, from New Zealand. (circa 1980s, 1990s?)

Image courtesy of DM Leathwick. Photo used with permission of Dr Mason.

Coming up – Hume (southern NSW) drench resistance trial results from Dr Amy Shergold.



“Champagne for my real friends; real pain for my sham friends”. [Sources]

WRML. reduced efficacy of monepantel in goats NZ. Sheep Husbandry Practices Guide MLA. NEMSE Field Day. Getting screwed. VetGun parasiticide delivery system. engineering accurate dosing.cloaca.

To WormMail list (recip. undisclosed)

In this WRML: reduced efficacy of monepantel in goats [NZ]. Sheep Husbandry Practices Guide [MLA]. NEMSE Field Day. Getting screwed. VetGun parasiticide delivery system. engineering accurate dosing. cloaca.

Reduced efficacy of monepantel in goats on a farm in NZ

At a conference in NZ in January this year, Scott and others reported a case of reduced efficacy of monepantel (‘Zolvix’ (Novartis)) on a NZ goat farm.

From the abstract:

* Early 2012: parasitic gastroenteritis on a property in goats despite recent treatment with monepantel (MPL; ‘Zolvix’ (Novartis)).

* History of resistance on farm to ‘all three traditional drench families’. (Presumably this means the benzimidazoles (BZs), levamisole (LEV) and macrocyclic lactones (MLs). I understand the farm, a small hobby farm, had a history of failure of triple drenches (e.g. BZ+LEV+ML).

* ‘Had been using MPL for ~ 2 years at 1.5x the sheep dose rate, (although it is unclear to me if this dose rate was used from day one or not. Certainly some goat owners in Australia used MPL at the sheep dose rate when it first came out. Apart from being an off-label usage (not registered for use in goats at any dose rate) , this does not augur well for the longevity of the product).

* Faecal egg count reduction test (FECRT) : 12 mixed age goats treated with MPL, 12 at 1.5x, and 4 at 3x the sheep dose rate (3.75 and 7.5 mg/kg respectively). Re-sampled 8 days after treatment.

* FECRT: no reduction in egg count with either MPL treatments.

* Also, 12 nine month old lambs were grazed on the goat farm for 5 weeks, then brought indoors for 2 weeks, then treated with MPL (average dose: 2.9 mg/kg).

* The 12 lambs were slaughtered 9 days post-treatment: worm counts showed MPL had ‘reduced or inapparent efficacy against more than one nematode species’. ( I guess ‘inapparent’ means zero or close to it).

The abstract gives no details on what species/genera of worms were present, frequency of treatment with MPL during the two year period, other worm management practices etc. (It is only an abstract after all).

However, those present at the conference in January tell me that Trichostrongylus colubriformis (black scour worm) and Teladorsagia circumcincta(small brown stomach worm) were the species involved and that monepantel was used on 17 consecutive occasions (no other drenches were used) on this farm, a 3Ha hobby farm , which had approximately 20 breeding goats and a very small number of sheep and cattle.

The authors do not declare that resistance has been diagnosed (possibly because Zolvix has no registered label claims for worms in goats?).

Reference: Scott I, Pomroy WE, Kenyon P, Smith G, Adlington B, and Moss A. Efficacy of monepantel against goat-derived parasite strains: the results of an egg count reduction test in goats and a slaughter study in sheep. International Sheep Veterinary Congress, New Zealand, 2013.

No doubt a full, more comprehensive paper has been submitted for publication in a peer-reviewed journal. (Awaited with interest).


With some exceptions, it seems to take about 5 years, in Australia at least, before we get the first published report of resistance of sheep /goat worms to a new anthelmintic. See Love S (2011), Table, page 4,5)). [ http://www.dpi.nsw.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0009/111060/Drench-resistance-and-sheep-worm-control.pdf

Unfortunately MPL seems to be roughly on schedule, in goats at least.

Goat and sheep owners optimally should have a good program of integrated worm management including but not limited to using combinations of unrelated drench actives (best), or rotating between unrelated drench actives known (by testing) to be effective on a given farm. For more on IPM, see WormBoss. e.g. http://www.wormboss.com.au/tests-tools/management-tools.php

For information on combinations see, for example : http://www.wormboss.com.au/tests-tools/management-tools/drench-mixtures-and-combinations.php

So, if I were a goat owner….?

Well, firstly I would have the advantage of being a vet and thus being able to prescribe off-label, and also having the advantage of an off-farm income (for the time being at least).

Goat owners, in Australia at least, face the extra challenge of having a very limited selection of drenches registered for use in goats. On the other hand, pharmaceutical companies understandably do not like to see their drenches used off-label in goats: resistance occurs fast enough when drenches registered for sheep are used in sheep; resistance seems to happen even faster when sheep drenches are used off-label in goats. (‘Off-label’ means used contrary to label directions).

The reality is, we know, rightly or wrongly, that goat owners will use sheep drenches. They are in a bind.

Using sheep drenches off-label (i.e. in goats) doesn’t do away with all the issues: you have to work out the right dose for goats (often but not always about twice the dose rate for sheep, and being mindful of safety as well as efficacy)), then you have to deal with withholding periods, especially in products for which no maximum residue level has been set for goats. (I am talking about the regulatory landscape in NSW here).

So, pretending the above are not issues, and that cost is not an issue, I would tell myself as a goat owner to NEVER use ‘Zolvix’ on its own from day one (if I was determined to use Zolvix), or other drench actives on their own, for as long as possible. This is with the aim of slowing the development resistance of worms to MPL and other actives.

Even limiting oneself to registered drenches, goat owners in NSW could at the very least use ‘Caprimec’ (abamectin) and a BZ drench registered for use in goats, at the same time, on each and every occasion they drenched. One could use morantel (‘Oralject’) as well, which is another, unrelated broad-spectrum (levamisole-morantel group) registered for use in goats. (To find out about drench groups, see WormBoss).

So, there are three unrelated broad-spectrum drench actives available: abamectin, various BZs , and morantel. There was at one time a permit allowing for ‘Neguvon’ (trichlorfon, an organophosphate) usage (against Haemonchus) in goats in AU, but I believe that has expired and ‘Neguvon’ may no longer be available.

If I was going to use Zolvix, I would use it at 2 times the sheep dose rate, and I would drench with abamectin at the same time, i.e. up the race with ‘Zolvix’ and up the race again with abamectin. Even better, I would use a BZ as well, so effectively a three-way combination. Better, would be monepantel and three other unrelated actives.

Of course I would also have to think seriously about biosecurity i.e. not importing resistant worms, or other nasties. For information on the general principles of quarantine treatments, see : http://www.wormboss.com.au/news/articles/drenches/quarantine-drenching-getting-it-right.php

(You might need advice on the details. Using naphthalophos in goats for example could be problematic due to the relatively narrow safety margin (narrower than in sheep, according to work years ago by Cliff Hall).

Of course, it is so easy for me to say all this from my ivory tower, but I think I am making reasonable sense. Think about it anyway.

Goat owners in particular can’t afford to use Zolvix, or any other broad-spectrum drench, on its own. You also MUST know what drenches work on your property and keep tabs on them. See: http://www.wormboss.com.au/tests-tools.php

Further, the use of combination drenches is not a magic bullet: they need to be part of a good worm management plan.

‘Sheep Husbandry Practices Guide’ – MLA website

Dr Matt Playford has brought the new Sheep Husbandry Guide to my attention.

“I hope it may be of interest to your readers. This has been a long time in the making, now finally come to fruition. ” – Matt.

Publication title: A producers’ guide to sheep husbandry practices Publication code: 9781925045062

http://www.mla.com.au/News-and-resources/Publication-details?pubid=6106 or, you can try this: or use this preview TinyURL:

July WormBoss news

It should be out soon. Have you subscribed? www.wormboss.com.au

Here is the blurb I just wrote for it:

“We are coming up to Spring lambing in many parts of NSW. Of course it is too late to preach to you about the critical importance of lambing paddock preparation. There is good information on this in WormBoss of course. Type ‘lambing’ into the search box, and also read the ‘Your Program’ for you region. It is not onerous: it is brief and too the point (which I think may be a tautology, although I suppose you can brief but pointless).

Wormboss including ‘Your Program’ is great! (Have I mentioned that before?).

Depending on your region a pre-lambing drench may or may not be recommended as routine. Certainly you need to have a good program of WormTesting to see what worm burdens ewes are carrying before lambing, and what ewes and lambs are carrying between lambing and weaning. Again, WormBoss, including its Drench Decision Guides, has the answers.

If/when doing a pre-lambing drench, consider a DrenchCheck also. If the drench didn’t work well, you will ‘reap the whirlwind’ i.e. big worm problems for months downstream from lambing, in ewes and lambs, especially if you did not prepare low risk lambing paddocks.

We are also approaching August, an ‘A’ month. ‘A’ months are the two most important months to drench for liver fluke (sheep, cattle, goats, alpacas), with April being the most important. Some need to drench for fluke in April only (i.e. April-May, when the frosts start), some need to do an August drench as well, and some with very ‘flukey’ farms need one in February also. Consider rotating between unrelated flukicides (or using combination flukicides! e.g. Nitromec in cattle) on each occasion. Resistance is out there.

If you don’t know if you need to treat for liver fluke, test for liver fluke in April, August and February. Testing options include the liver fluke worm egg count, the liver fluke antibody ELISA (blood test), and the faecal fluke antigen test. All have their pros and cons. More information: Search for ‘liver fluke’ at WormBoss.com.au, check out the DPI wesbite (http://www.dpi.nsw.gov.au/agriculture/livestock/sheep/health ; http://www.dpi.nsw.gov.au/agriculture/vetmanual/specimens-by-discipline/parasitology/fasciola ) and go to the CSU Vet Lab (Wagga) page for information on the fluke faecal antigen test ( http://www.csu.edu.au/vetservices/vdl You may need to contact the lab for more information).

Remember that liver fluke infective larvae (metacercariae), unlike round worm larvae, occur in patches on a farm (where the intermediate host (snail) habitat is), so some mobs on a flukey farm could be negative on testing, depending on grazing and treatment histories.

Liver fluke is a zoonosis. There is more information here : http://www.dpi.nsw.gov.au/biosecurity/animal/humans/zoonoses-transmission as well as in the NSW DPI Primefacts/FactSheets on liver fluke.

-Stephen Love, Veterinarian/Parasitologist, NSW DPI, Armidale”

New England Merino Sire Evaluation Field day – organiser: Jim Meckiff, NSW DPI Armidale

For your information. RSVP is today! (19 July). jim.meckiff@dpi.nsw.gov.au Tel: 0428 968 159

Getting screwed – a parasite story

‘Brought to my attention by my better half: http://www.abc.net.au/news/2013-07-18/maggots-lived-in-womans-ear-after-peru-trip/4827524

There was a case years ago of a woman travelling back to Australia who had a screw worm infested cut on her head. She sort medical advice (before and after arriving back in AU) but it was not definitively diagnosed until she happened upon someone connected with the former NSW DPI Vet Lab at Wagga Wagga.

VetGun (ecto-) parasiticide delivery system

‘Brought to my attention by a Kiwi colleague. Another colleague tells me that something like this has been used in South America for at least 6 years.

Of course this is ‘cool’, especially for ‘the boys’, but how well does it work and is it sustainable? (selection for resistance?). I don’t know.


“Australian veterinary equipment firm SmartVet has launched its parasiticide delivery VetGun system in the US.

The company claims the VetGun could change the landscape of parasite management in cattle. It said a rancher working alone can dose up to 100 cattle per hour using the technology.

SmartVet said the VetGun is the only dosing system not requiring animal handling, herding, yarding and running cattle through a chute. It allows dosing to take place in the field from a safe distance, thereby reducing stress and the chance of injuries to cattle and ranchers alike.

The company said the paintball-styled VetGun is a precision-engineered CO2-powered application device that delivers a new dosage form called a VetCap. The VetCap bursts on hitting the cow releasing its parasiticide contents.

“VetGun is so quick, simple and effective that one person working alone can treat an entire herd in the field, resulting in major savings of labor; time and money. Not only does it allow for convenient timing of insecticide application to deliver maximum parasite control, it also allows for precise dosage control,” said Randall Tosh, SmartVet’s vice president of business.

“It also reduces animal stress which in turn leads to improved feed conversion efficiencies, weight gain, overall health and productivity which add to the producers’ profitability. VetGun can even substantially contribute to alleviating horn fly resistance.”

The SmartVet US operation is based in Olathe, Kansas. SmartVet was co-founded by a fourth-generation cattle rancher and specializes in finding simple, logical solutions to everyday animal health challenges. The VetGun came after four years of research by the company (Source: Animal Pharm, June 18). ”

There is a video on http://www.smartvet.com/ .

An engineering solution – getting the right dose each time

When talking at a meeting at Cowra several weeks ago, someone in the meeting, commenting on the problem of inaccurate dosing, asked, ‘Why is an engineering solution always considered last?”

I think his point was: surely a system can be devised that weighs each animal and then calibrates the gun appropriately.

Something to think about.


Of course we all know what cloaca means, but I didn’t realise its original meaning was ‘outhouse’ or ‘sewer’.

There is always something new to learn in the world of parasitology and sewage.

The following is from Word.A.Day. (You can subscribe).

with Anu Garg http://wordsmith.org/awad/index.html


plural cloacae (klo-AY-se, -kee)

1. An outhouse.
2. A sewer.
3. The common duct into which intestinal, urinary, and genital tracts open in birds, reptiles, most fishes, and some mammals.

From Latin cloaca (sewer, canal), from cluere (to cleanse). Earliest documented use: 1656.

“David Walsh has found that cloaca happens. Having spent $180 million establishing Museum of Old and New Art, the most famous exhibit being Cloaca, a complicated poo-producing machine, Mr Walsh is now involved in a legal stoush* with the Australian Tax Office.”
MONA founder in Tax Office sights; The Sydney Morning Herald (Australia); Jun 7, 2012.
* fight

“Anne had balked at hanging her mistress’s most beautiful clothes in the cloaca … because of the smell.”
Posie Graeme-Evans; The Anne Trilogy; Atria; 2002.

So, what placental mammals have a true cloaca as adults? https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cloaca (Queenslanders excluded.. 🙂


SL, 2013-7-19

New England Merino Sire Evaluation Field Day 2013x.pdf

WRML. WormBoss News-ML resistance in Tassie-hypersensitivity in WA. Pig worms. LiceBoss reborn.Trusted professions.Worm takes out cyclist.Browser humour

WormMail. (recip. undisclosed).

WRML.20130709. WormBoss News-ML resistance in Tassie.Hypersensitivity in WA. Pig worms. LiceBoss reborn. Trusted professions. Worm takes out cyclist. Browser humour

Some gleanings from WormBossNews (you get it but do you read it?)

Moxidectin resistance rapidly emerging in Tasmania (WormBoss News – Tasmania – June 2013 – Dr Paul Nilon)

This from Dr Paul Nilon a few years ago:

“Tasmania is perhaps 10 years behind the mainland in drench resistance. This is for two reasons:

Firstly, summer refugia slow resistance development; secondly we are less than diligent in looking for it. ML resistance is in its infancy. Most properties come back at, say, 99% for full ML and maybe 97% for 1/2ML (ML at half the usual dose).

Teladorsagia are our most resistant species. Trichs are frequently resistant to levamisole, but rarely to BZs. Many properties find standard combinations still work well, and using OP combinations is in its infancy. Properties with an unrelenting history of ML use get a bit shocked when they see their results.

Of course, strategies to slow resistance are usually not adopted until it becomes a problem. This is very much the case here as sheep production is often the second or third string operation. Sustained sheep meat prices or the return to good wool prices may bring more focus to bear on this and other sheep production issues”.

Source: Turning the Worm Issue 26 May, 2010. http://www.dpi.nsw.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0004/333553/ttw-issue26-may2010.

(ML = macrocyclic lactone. BZ = benzimidazoles. OP = organophosphate Trich = Trichostrongylus More information: www.wormboss.com.au)

Paul Nilon more recently in WormBoss News June 2013:

“You know how footy commentators work: they espouse a theory, find a single example, and then bang on endlessly about it as if it were immutable. Well, my new theory is that Moxidectin resistance is emerging rapidly in Tasmania. I have had four cases in two months (which makes me an oracle). Thus we’ve gone from 1/2 Mectin to Abamectin and Moxidectin in our drench tests in about two years. The interesting thing is that in all four cases Abamectin still works at close to 100%. This is consistent with findings in other parts of the country and suggests that the resistance mechanism for mox is more complicated than for aba and ivo. The take home message is to use Moxidectin wisely to preserve the long-acting version.”

Comment (SL): In summer dominant rainfall areas (eg. northern NSW/ Queensland) at least moxidectin is usually more efficacious (against increasingly resistant worms, measured by worm egg count reduction tests) than abamectin which is usually more efficacious than ivermectin.

Larval hypersensitivity scouring (WormBoss News -Western Australia – June 2013 – RB Besier)

‘A nice little explanation of hypersensitivity scouring by Dr Besier from Albany:

Adult sheep: Scouring can sometimes be due to high worm burdens, but it may also be due to the less clear-cut situation of “larval hypersensitivity scouring”. This occurs where worm-immune sheep (above about 18 months of age) encounter enough worm larvae to incite an excessive immunological reaction to them. This causes inflammation of the gut and the larvae will be rejected (not become adult worms), but the gut damage also results in diarrhoea. Because few worms are present to produce eggs, there is a low or even zero worm egg count in these flocks, and a drench is of little value.

Action: Do a worm egg count on mobs of scouring adult sheep. If counts are high, a drench is obviously needed, but not if they are very low. Long acting drenches (injections or slow-release capsules) will have some effect, but are not guaranteed to be effective in all sheep once scouring has started. A change to another paddock, with the lowest level of worms on it, may be sufficient to stop the problem, but this would need to have been spelled from sheep for 2-3 months.

Why “hypersensitivity scouring” occurs in only some mobs, and is more a problem in some years than others, and has a variable response to drenching, is not well understood. Research is needed to unravel this and provide longer-term solutions.

Comment: Of course with all these things, you have to consider the context: general principles may apply generally (hence the name I guess) but some detail is region-specific.


This might be helpful: http://www.dpi.nsw.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0019/433018/internal-parasites-of-pigs.pdf

Younger sibling of WormBoss is re-born (new LiceBoss website)

“The new LiceBoss website has now been launched!

Lice infestations reduce fleece weight and downgrade wool quality, costing the sheep industry $120 million each year in treatment costs and loss production.
LiceBoss contains the latest information on lice and management including Liceboss Tools and LiceBoss Notes to help:

* Prevent new infestations;
* Detect infestations through structured monitoring; and
* Eradicate infestations in short and long wool sheep and manage chemical residues in wool.”

Most trusted professions http://www.readersdigest.com.au/most-trusted-professions-2013

(‘Passed on to me by one of my progeny, who is a firefighter as well as an exercise physiologist).

Mothers, if counted as professionals, would have to be number 1. 🙂

I see vets are ranked fairly highly… 🙂

Intestinal worm rules cyclist out of le Tour http://www.cyclingnews.com/news/intestinal-parasite-rules-vanendert-out-of-tour-de-france

(Brought to my attention by Dr Gareth Kelly of Virbac)

The article makes for humorous reading for a number of reasons.

Perhaps an athlete who has a ‘a parasite’ (of indeterminate or other status) could try these?:

* erythropoetin
* corticosteroids
* anabolic steroids
* growth hormone or analogues
* phenylbutazone
* masking drugs… er…probenecid etc
* slow-release caffeine for fatty acid mobilisation
* cocaine (as in the old days of le Tour)
* other

But nothing so silly as antibiotics…

(Tongue in cheek of course)




WRML. Measure it – you might be surprised at the results (on-farm trials-cattle drenches)

To: WormMail list (recip. undisclosed).

Dr Todd Andrews of NSW DPI reports on some trials cattle producers in the Upper Hunter, NSW did to objectively evaluate some different worm control options in weaners.

Of course different situations (regions, seasons, management systems etc) etc will yield different results.

As they say, ‘if you don’t measure it, you can’t manage it’.

Measure it – you might be surprised at the results

Dr Todd Andrews (Beef Development Officer, NSW DPI, Armidale)

A recent trial in the Upper Hunter monitored the impact of different worm control options in early weaned calves and revealed some surprising results. The trials were conducted on four properties using mostly calves weighing 160-180kg, although some yearling cattle were also included.

In contrast to on-farm trials in the NSW Central Tablelands that showed repeat treatments with a long acting, injectable wormicide (Cydectin LA®) produced superior weight gain in weaner cattle compared to pour on and control treatments, the Upper Hunter trial showed no difference between products. In fact where pastures had been spelled prior to grazing by the weaners, there were no differences between treated and untreated animals.

The Hunter trial was initiated in early 2013 because of the extremely dry 2012 spring and the early weaned calves were considered to be highly susceptible to worms. However NSW DPI veterinary parasitologist Stephen Love believes that the dry spring probably reduced worm larvae survival on pastures. “In general, the Central Tablelands is a cooler wetter environment that is more favourable for worm survival and these results support that theory. It also confirms the value of resting pastures for four months, particularly by grazing from susceptible classes of stock, prior to stocking with weaners.”

Three properties compared macrocyclic lactone (‘mectin’) ‘pour-ons’ with a long acting injectable product and no differences were found between weight gains from either weaners or yearling cattle. One Merriwa producer found no additional weight gain from any treatments compared with untreated control animals 80 days after treatment.

On the other end of the spectrum, one producer who does not generally use a worm control product found that weight gain increased by 20% in both mixed weaners and yearlings after treatment with Cydectin LA®. Another feature of that property was that untreated British bred yearling heifers gained 1.7kg/d on pasture over the 42 days of the trial, while treated animals gained 2.1kg. While those exceptional growth rates may have been the result of some compensatory gain after the extremely dry spring, the net result was that treated animals gained an addition 20kg liveweight or around $35 per animal, over the 42 days of that trial.

Scone NSW DPI Development Officer Todd Andrews highlighted the value of producers testing the impact of inputs. “Beef producers have to be tight to make money. That doesn’t mean that not spending any money is the best policy, but that the value of every input cost is justified in terms of animal production or some other measure.”

“These results suggest that pour-on products are still suitable for the Hunter region and that good, non-chemical management can also reduce worm burdens. But I would highlight the value of producers weighing cattle to monitor the impacts of parasite control and other inputs such as vitamin and mineral supplements.”

Comments (S.Love):

· These are on-farms and it is hard to control for all variables as might happen on a research farm.

· The aim was to see if a long-acting product was worthwhile in all cases compared to shorter acting products. Todd fully realises of course that the variables include not only long-acting vs shorter-acting, but also different routes of administration and different active ingredients

· One of the pour-ons used was Dectomax (doramectin), one was Ivomec (ivermectin) and the other was Cydectin (moxidectin).

· A particular drench or drenching program might be the best in many situations, but this does not mean all situations.

· A main point coming out of the exercise is the need to objectively evaluate what you are doing, especially given the finding from NSW and Victorian trials (see below) that worm egg counts have limitations in cattle, particularly when it comes to predicting likely production losses from roundworms.

So, consider on-going evaluation of your worm control program, what drenches you use, and whether you have drench resistance. Objectively assessing these might have a big impact on cost of production and/or productivity, and therefore the bottom line.

URLs for reports on Central Tablelands (NSW) and Victorian (MLA-supported) ‘producer demonstration site’ (PDS) trials:

Eppleston J. http://www.mla.com.au/Research-and-development/Final-report-details?projectid=15260 [http://tinyurl.com/mvf5hsq]

Rolls N and Webb Ware J. http://www.mla.com.au/Research-and-development/Final-report-details?projectid=15157 [http://tinyurl.com/povr6yu]