WRML. 20131025.Wiley WormBoss and Ripper are coming!

To find out more, subscribe to WormBoss Monthly News.

(I think this is the shortest WormMail ever!)



Arial-free zone

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WRML.20131023. Table. Sheep drenches, resistance and worm control initiatives – Australia

To WormMail list.

Sheep drenches, resistance and worm control initiatives – Australia

A colleague asked me some questions about what happened when (when resistance to this or that occurred etc), which prompted me to produce this WormMail.

Here is a timeline from this NSW DPI Primefact: http://www.dpi.nsw.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0009/111060/Drench-resistance-and-sheep-worm-control.pdf (Relevant pages attached as a PDF).

You may see versions of this material produced by drench companies.

In most cases the time that resistance was reported relates to when the first paper was published in a journal.

In the case of closantel resistance however, the first field case in sheep was found ~ 1987/1988, by then Warialda District Vet Phil Kemsley, during regular WormTesting as part of the WormKill sentinel flock monitoring program. As it happened, the first Australian report of moxidectin resistance in sheep relates to the same farm in northern NSW.

The paper describing the closantel resistant isolate of Haemonchus from the Warialda district was published by Rolfe and others in 1990. (Aust Vet J. 1990 Jan;67(1):29-31. Closantel resistance in Haemonchus contortus from sheep.Rolfe PF, Boray JC, Fitzgibbon C, Parsons G, Kemsley P, Sangster N).

I have updated this timeline recently…. (but its location currently eludes me).

For example, speaking of recent/significant happenings, have I told you that the revamped WormBoss was launched on 21.11.12? If so, do you regularly visit WormBoss? 🙂



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Drench-resistance-and-sheep-worm-control-Feb 2011.pdf

WRML.20131022. WormfaxNSW-September. Drug combinations. Wormy mouth.

To: WormMail mailing list (recip. undisclosed)

WormFax NSW-September 2013

The latest is online: http://www.dpi.nsw.gov.au/aboutus/resources/periodicals/newsletters/wormfax(Sources of data: State Vet Lab, DPI, Menangle; Veterinary Health Research Lab., Armidale).

Again, around the state (NSW), worm egg counts (WECs) range from quite low to high. As always, it is unsafe to make generalisations and assumptions about worm burdens. ‘Nothing like objective measurement (as opposed to guessing). (Likewise with drench efficacy: don’t guess; regularly do DrenchChecks : http://www.wormboss.com.au/programs/pastoral/managing-drench-resistance.php )

Rainfall anomaly, NSW, for the 3 months, 1 July – 30 September, 2013: see map http://www.bom.gov.au/web03/ncc/www/awap/rainfall/anomaly/3month/colour/latest.hres.gif

For NSW, the eastern third and the north eastern quadrant of the state in particular are dry, well down on the rain ‘normally’ received in this period.

Even so, there are some high worm egg counts in some flocks in this area (NE NSW), quite often dominated by barber’s pole worm. You might wonder why, given that barber’s pole worm eggs like it warm (e.g. daily minima over 10 degrees C; maxima > 18)) and moist ( regular falls of rain totalling somewhat more than 50 mm per month preferred).

See: http://www.wormboss.com.au/programs/tablelands-slopes/liver-fluke-control/factors-contributing-to-paddock-contamination-with-worms.php

Part of the answer might be that some of these infections have arisen from larval pick-up since autumn (generally, infective larvae are somewhat more hardy than the eggs), and burdens in sheep from autumn, topped off perhaps by newly ‘-born’ (spring-born) larvae in localised situations where there were some showers and green pasture. Also part of the picture might be use of drenches that were not highly effective (highly likely) and less than optimal grazing management.

More detailed district ‘wrap-ups’: WormBoss Monthly News (October), which should be out soon. Have you subscribed?

Combinations of unrelated chemical used to treat HIV

So, it is recommend for other pathogens too, not ‘just’ worms of livestock. See http://www.wormboss.com.au/news/articles/drenches/understanding-drenches-mixtures-combinations-and-both.php

Note, however, that combination therapy is not the main point of this Catalyst story.

(Aside: the next two episodes of Catalyst – on cholesterol and lipids – should be interesting. Another paradigm under increasing challenge?).



Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome looms as the greatest health crisis to face this country in a generation.


HIV/AIDS would go on to become the worst pandemic of our time, infecting 17 million people and killing 35 million.

Associate Professor Paula Cannon

You know, the big problem with HIV is it’s not just your average virus that infects any cell in the body. It’s a virus that specifically goes into your immune system and kills the very cells that are trying to attack it. That’s why it’s so insidious.


HIV homes in on T lymphocytes, or ‘T cells’, our vital immune cells that help fight infections. It penetrates the T cells’ defences and begins to replicate up to ten billion copies a day. Eventually, the cell dies, releasing new clones of the virus, slowly killing off a person’s immune system. Medications can stop the virus from replicating. But HIV is cunning.

Associate Professor Paula Cannon

Oh, my gosh, it’s like the poster child for natural selection. It’s always changing. If you treat patients with just one drug for example, the virus just laughs at you and very rapidly evolves resistance to that one drug. This is why we have to treat patients with multiple drugs, typically a combination of three, to make it just statistically improbable for the virus to be able to simultaneously evolve

American with wormy mouth…’Nah, its just skin discolouration’

Disambiguation: This condition (rare in humans) is not to be confused with ‘toilet’ or ‘potty’ mouth (not uncommon).


(Thanks to Dr Steven Maeder, Zoetis, Kalamazoo who brought this to my attention.)

More information on Gongylonema: http://www.dpi.nsw.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0003/34608/lh-pathol-int-para.pdf Tables 4 and 5.

It’s also mentioned briefly in WormBoss: http://www.wormboss.com.au/worms/roundworms/other-nematodes.php

According to the Merck Vet Manual, the probable means of spread to humans: ingestion of infected beetles, probably on vegetables; possible inhalation of small beetles.

‘Another reason to wash your veggies before eating, or to avoid them altogether, as real men do, and to breathe (inhale) carefully.

Here is another reason to wash veggies before ingestion: https://wormmailinthecloud.wordpress.com/2011/02/01/wormmail-20110201-trichostrongylosis-in-humans-redux/

Gongylonemiasis is listed under Parasitic Nematodes, about halfway down Table 1 in the zoonosis section ( http://preview.tinyurl.com/kppzhj8 ).



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WRML. WormTesting. osis or iasis. toxic plants. Plains Talk. cats. Poo-the book. flash drives. deflated by Mohandas.

To WormMail mailing list.

In this issue: WormTesting, osis or iasis, toxic plants, Plains Talk, cats, Poo-the book

Checking a mob of sheep for worms

A friend/primary producer (these terms are not mutually exclusive) asked me recently about WormTesting and whether 10 individual samples from a mob were enough.

For the good oil on this, go to WormBoss:


Yep, WormBoss has the good oil on pretty much everything.

Here is a discussion at the end of page to which the above link/URL directs:

Bulk collection method

When conducting your own worm egg counts on farm:

Collect three pellets per adult pile (or the equivalent amount if soft or runny) or five for weaners.
Collect from at least 20 dung piles.
Where Haemonchus (barber’s pole worms) are an issue, and if the mob has over 200 sheep, collect from each of 40 dung piles.
Collect all dung into one container.
The dung then needs to be mixed extremely thoroughly.
Conduct your worm egg count using a sub-sample from the bulk mixture.

“-osis or iasis ?”

So, is it, for example, ostertagiosis or ostertagiasis?

Here is the good oil:

-osis. word element. (Gk). disease, morbid state, abnormal increase.
-asis. suffix meaning process or condition.
Source: Saunders Comprehensive Vet Dict. (Blood et al). 3rd Ed, Saunders.

Thus ‘osis’ would seem to indicate the state associated with clinical disease and ‘asis’ the stages before that.

An example:

* ostertagiosis – clinical disease due to Ostertagia sp (although the term ostertagiasis is more commonly (if not correctly) used here).

* ostertagiasis -infection with Ostertagia sp.

The way I remember it is to think of Joe Boray’s liver fluke Primefact, which equates ‘liver fluke disease’ with ‘fasciolosis’: http://www.dpi.nsw.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0004/114691/liver-fluke-disease-in-sheep-and-cattle.pdf

Veterinary notes on livestock disorders associated with pasture species

Dr Chris Bourke, formerly Principal Research Scientist (Veterinary Toxicology) at NSW DPI, Orange wrote these handy notes.

(I stumbled across them while fielding an inquiry from a NZ colleague re poisonous plants).

Go to Appendix VI, pages 47-48 at http://www.dpi.nsw.gov.au/agriculture/pastures/pastures-and-rangelands/species-varieties/pasture-varieties

(I noticed the odd typo in there, so even former class mate Chris wasn’t perfect 🙂 . Typos are deliberately included in most WRMLs to see who is paying attention).

Plains Talk

Plains Talk is a newsletter emailed monthly to over 800 landholders and is of particular interest to those on the NSW Western Plains.

It is also available to view online at http://www.lhpa.org.au/districts/centralwest.

If you aren’t on the mailing list and would like to be, please email jillian.kelly@lhpa.org.au .

Our complicated relationship with cats


‘Also contains some parasitology, so doubly good.

Poo book (Davies and Layton)

A good coffee table book for you, your visitors, children and grandchildren. (Thank you Dr R Reece). If your friends don’t like it, then maybe you should be more choosy.

I got mine (for my (ostensibly adult) sons) from fishpond.com.au ISBN 9781844287512 http://preview.tinyurl.com/lbr8flt

An 8mb USB flash drive !!!!

‘When IBM launched the first commercial USB flash drive in late 2000, it had a maximum storage capacity of 8MB. At the time, this was seen as cutting edge, since that was about 5x the capacity of then-common floppy disks’.

Source: http://www.goodsync.com

How things have changed in a short time, both the capacity and the cost per megabyte.

Quote of the Day

‘Not flattering, but perhaps insightful nonetheless?



Natural History-N Davies N Layton 2004.front and back covers.20130904102132.pdf