WRML: update of WormMail on monepantel resistance

To WormMail list (recip. undisclosed)

I have updated this WormMail from 11 June: https://wormmailinthecloud.wordpress.com/2014/06/11/wrml-monepantel-zolvix-resistance-confirmed-in-goats-in-nsw-australia/

There were one or two mistakes.

One was that the owner did not find evidence of monepantel (MPL) when doing a post-quarantine DrenchCheck on imported goats, but during routine monitoring of home-bred goats in late autumn 2012.

In the first version I also did not indicate that the resistance to brown stomach worm involved two species of that worm (Tel. circumcincta and Tel. trifurcata). This might be of interest to just a few.

While it would be all too easy to blame goat producers in general – and this producer in particular – for this case of MPL resistance, note that this producer frequently did worm egg counts (WECs) to monitor worm burdens and also drench efficacy.

Here is an excerpt from the updated WormMail:

‘MPL, which is only registered for use in sheep, had been used on the farm shortly after the drench was available in Australia (spring, 2010). On the first occasion the drench was used at the sheep dose rate. Thereafter a higher rate was used when the farmer learnt more about the way goats metabolise drenches.

The owner resorted to MPL because of apparent control failures when using a variety of other drenches to control worm problems during a particularly wet year.

To his credit, this goat producer does frequent worm egg counts (WECs) to monitor worm burdens and to check the efficacy of drenches. Across Australia, probably less than 10% of sheep and goat producers do this. It was during routine monitoring in 2012 the producer discovered signs of reduced efficacy with MPL.” (Emphasis mine).

I also added some more comments at the bottom of the updated WormMail.




WRML. WormFax NSW-May, plus ‘other’

​To WormMail list (recipients (~ 400). undisclosed)

WormFaxNSW​-May issue

The latest issue of WormFax has been published to the NSWDPI website.

See: http://www.dpi.nsw.gov.au/aboutus/resources/periodicals/newsletters/wormfax for results, notes and maps.

Some of the higher average egg counts for WormTests around the traps (NSW):

Central North: weaners. 7320 eggs per gram of faeces (epg). No larval culture.

Armidale. Ewes. 3272 epg. 100% Haemonchus.

Northern New England. Hoggets. 4220 epg. 82% Haemonchus, 18% Trichostrongylus.

Central West. Ewes. 3760 epg. 100% Haemonchus.

Lachlan. Rams. 2404 epg. 100% Haemonchus.

(Parts of central and southern NSW have had an excellent autumn, unlike much of northern NSW which has had continuing dry conditions since winter last year, or longer).

Riverina. Weaners. 1592 epg. No culture.

South East. Weaners. 3240 epg. 100% Haemonchus.

Tablelands Local Land Services region. Rams. 6160 epg. 100% Haemonchus.

Goulburn. Weaners. 3600 epg. 96% Haemonchus.

Mudgee. Weaners. 4400 epg. 100% Haemonchus.

Hunter. Ewes. 7604 epg. 100% Haemonchus.

Moss Vale. Lambs. 5720 epg. 99% Haemonchus.

​Still very dry in parts​

Parts of northern NSW and Qld continue their protracted dry spell.

See: http://www.bom.gov.au/jsp/awap/rain/index.jsp?colour=colour&time=latest&step=0&map=drought&period=9month&area=ns


​What an odd word, when meaning, in Australia at least, an anthelmintic (oral, and also topical or injectable), or the process of giving same to livestock, but not so much companion animals (cats, dogs) where the expressions​ ‘wormer’ (noun) and ‘worm’ (verb) tend to be used instead.

Otherwise drench means to ‘thoroughly wet’ (see excerpt from the Macquarie Dictionary below).

As to the unusual meaning of the word used in an animal husbandry context in some countries, the clue seems to come from older meanings of the word and to the word’s etymology:


/drɛntʃ/ (say drench)

verb (t) 1. to wet thoroughly; steep; soak: garments drenched with rain; swords drenched in blood.

2. Archaic to cause to drink.

3. Veterinary Science to administer a draught of medicine to (an animal), especially by force: to drench a horse.

noun 4. the act of drenching.

5. something that drenches: a drench of rain.

6. a preparation for drenching or steeping.

7. Obsolete a large drink or draught.

8. a draught of medicine, especially one administered to an animal by force.

[Middle English drenche(n), Old English drencancausative of drincan drink] drencher, noun


We have just migrated our email to Google Apps, so, if you don’t get this, you will know why… 😉

Eyes on the road: http://youtu.be/JHixeIr_6BM ​​

Mosquitoes released in north Queensland to fight dengue

‘Researchers want to unleash a swarm of mosquitoes on the north Queensland city of Townsville with the goal of curbing the spread of dengue fever. Today, the researchers will hold a meeting with community leaders to try to get the city on board. Scientists want to introduce mosquitoes that are infected with the bacteria Wolbachia, which makes the insects resistant to dengue fever. The potentially fatal disease has no specific treatment and no vaccine. Small-scale trials in Cairns have shown Wolbachia prevents mosquitoes from transmitting dengue, and they eventually overrun the existing dengue-carrying population. Monash University Professor Scott O’Neill says he hopes the research will eventually lead to the elimination of dengue. “When you think how big the disease is, how big a p… ​’​

Read the full story: http://www.abc.net.au/news/2014-06-16/mosqitoes-to-invade-north-queensland-in-bid-to-eradicate-dengue/5525226

​Chewing the (saturated) fat – one view from NZ (NZMJ)​


​Maggots as food

As discussed recently with an​ equally mad…er…lateral thinking… colleague:


​Fructose ‘loves’ Homer

Infographic from David Gillespie:


​Why Nikola Tesla was the greatest geek who ever lived – The Oatmeal​




SL. 2014-06-23

WRML: Monepantel (Zolvix®) resistance confirmed in goats in NSW Australia

To: WormMail mailing list.

Monepantel (Zolvix®) resistance confirmed in goats in NSW Australia    (updated 27.6.14)

Resistance of worms in goats to monepantel (Zolvix®, Novartis) was recently confirmed on a farm in the central west of New South Wales. As far as I know this is the first and only case of confirmed resistance to monepantel in Australia.

Resistance to this drench on goat farms in NZ was reported in 2013, 4 years after the ‘world launch’ of monepantel (MPL) in that country in autumn 2009.

The property in NSW breeds their own goats and sometimes imports goats from other farms.

MPL, which is only registered for use in sheep, had been used on the farm shortly after the drench was available in Australia (spring, 2010). On the first occasion the drench was used at the sheep dose rate. Thereafter a higher rate was used when the farmer learnt more about the way goats metabolise drenches.

The owner resorted to MPL because of apparent control failures when using a variety of other drenches to control worm problems during a particularly wet year.

To his credit, this goat producer does frequent worm egg counts (WECs) to monitor worm burdens and to check the efficacy of drenches. Across Australia, probably less than 10% of sheep and goat producers do this. It was during routine monitoring in 2012 the producer discovered signs of reduced efficacy with MPL

The owner sought advice from Dr Belinda Edmonstone, the District Veterinarian at Forbes NSW (http://centralwest.lls.nsw.gov.au/) regarding the positive WECs in some goats after the quarantine drench. We discussed the case together, and then invited veterinarians from Novartis Animal Health (NAH) to be involved.

Following standard protocols, Belinda and one of the NAH vets set up a faecal worm egg reduction test (WECRT, aka ‘DrenchTest’) on the farm. There was a treatment group that received Zolvix® at 1.5 times the sheep dose rate, and a group of untreated controls. Faecal samples were divided and sent to the NAH research facility in Sydney as well as NSW DPI’s State Vet Lab at Menangle (outer Sydney), for egg counting and larval cultures.

Following are the results of the DrenchTest, conducted in spring 2012:

Haemonchus spp (barber’s pole worm): 100% reduction in WEC post treatment.

Trichostrongylus spp(black scour worm/stomach hair worm): 92 to 97% reduction.

Teladorsagia spp (small brown stomach worm): the WECs in the untreated controls were too low to be conclusive, but the number of eggs left after treatment gave cause for concern.

Confirmation by way of slaughter study was the next step. Goats were monitored on-farm until WECs were high enough, which took some time. This and other issues delayed the study somewhat. When counts were satisfactory,  faecal samples were collected and sent to the NAH research facility for culturing and subsequent artificial infection of sheep.

Below are the results of the slaughter study in sheep, comparing total worm counts of those treated with Zolvix – at the recommended dose rate for sheep – with counts for sheep that were left untreated.

Slaughter study results

 Haemonchus contortus (barber’s pole worm):susceptible (i.e. MPL was highly effective).

Trichostrongylus colubriformis (black scour worm): emerging resistance.

 Teladorsagia circumcincta and trifurcata (small brown stomach worm): severe resistance.

Concluding comments

This appears to be the first report in Australia of confirmed* resistance to monepantel. (*WECRT+slaughter study)

A report to be published in a peer-reviewed scientific journal is planned.

The comments I made regarding the NZ report of monepantel resistance are generally relevant. Rather than repeat them here, see:


The point of this WormMail? This post will be worthwhile if it somehow puts producers and their advisors on alert – and results in greater diligence in looking after the drench actives we have.

There are goat farms in NZ and AU with resistance to all broad-spectrum anthelmintic products currently on the market (with the exception of – as far as we know – Startect (the derquantel part of it anyway)).

These include organophosphates (in AU), benzimidazoles, levamisole/morantel drenches, and the macrocyclic lactones. As to the latter, Leathwick (1995) reported a ~ 1993 case in NZ where neither ivermectin, nor moxidectin (the most potent of the MLs in small ruminants), appreciably reduced worm egg counts after treatment. (I understand moxidectin was launched in NZ 1991, ~3-4 years before Australia). No drench is immortal (but we can affect their life span).

For the Australian farm in question here, it seems possible, for example, that the MPL-resistant worms were imported onto the property and/or home-bred.

So, consider this:  how good are your/your client’s quarantine / biosecurity practices??

And further, how good are your other practices? (worm egg count monitoring? regular drench efficacy checking? maintaining worms in refugia? grazing management? promoting worm-resistance in animals? nutrition? and so on…..

Its not just about goats. Sheep are not far behind. And in recent years we have been reminded that resistance of cattle worms to drenches is definitely an issue as well.

Leathwick DM (1995). A case of moxidectin failing to control ivermectin resistant Ostertagia species in goats. Veterinary Record (1995) 36, 443-444.

Le Jambre LF et al (2005 ). Characterization of moxidectin resistant Trichostrongylus colubriformis and Haemonchus contortus. Veterinary Parasitology 128 (2005) 83–90. (This paper includes evidence of resistance to naphthalophos).

Scott I, Pomroy WE, Kenyon P, Smith G, Adlington B, and Moss A. Efficacy of monepantel against goat-derived parasite strains: the results of an egg count reduction test in goats and a slaughter study in sheep. International Sheep Veterinary Congress, New Zealand, 2013.

Scott, I., Pomroy, W.E., Kenyon, P.R., Smith, G.,Adlington, B., Moss, A., Lack of efficacy of monepantel against Teladorsagia circumcincta and Trichostrongylus colubriformis, Veterinary Parasitology (2013). ( Regarding the goat farm which is the subject of this paper: I believe the owner, having exhausted all other options, is now using Startect (derquantel+abamectin)).


2010-06-11  (updated 2014-06-27)


Added comments (2014-06-27:

Where to from here?

In Australia first confirmed reports of resistance to new sheep drenches occur about 4 years after coming onto the market. There are exceptions.

We can influence how long drenches ‘live’. Best practice sheep worm management is the way to go. WormBoss – wormboss.com.au – tells you how, and the general principles apply to other grazing livestock.

Following is an outline, in no particular order. Go to WormBoss for more information.

Keep resistant worms out. Current best practice for quarantine drenching (Australia): use Zolvix concurrently with at least three other unrelated broad-spectrum actives.


Rotate drenches and consider combinations. Use Zolvix in a rotation with other unrelated drenches (or combinations of drenches) known to be effective on the property.


Use effective drenches: drenches that have been tested on-farm and shown to be effective.


Drench at the right time



Grazing management: to reduce exposure of sheep to worms, and improve nutrition.


Follow the right program for your region


Improve the resistance and resilience of your sheep to worms: through breeding, and ‘feeding’ (nutrition).



Maintain worms in refugia: don’t expose all or most worms on a property to a drench at the same time.


Summary of managing drench resistance:



WRML.Startect® (derquantel+abamectin) to see daylight soon in Australia?

To WormMail list (recip. undisclosed)

WRML: Startect to see daylight soon in Australia?

An hawk-eyed colleague brought this to my attention:

APVMA Gazette No.11, 3 June 2014 http://www.apvma.gov.au/publications/gazette/2014/11/gazette_20140603.pdf

Pages 27-29 are about derquantel. Derquantel (DQL) (new) + abamectin (ABA) (not so new) are the active ingredients in the Zoetis (formerly Pfizer) sheep drench, Startect).

From page 27, 29

"NoticeNew Veterinary Active ConstituentDerquantel
The Australian Pesticides and Veterinary Medicines Authority (APVMA) has before it an application for the approval of a new active constituent, derquantel.

Derquantel is a semi-synthetic spiroindole anthelmintic with nicotinic chlolinergic antagonist action against a broad range of adult and immature gastrointestinal nematodes. It will be used for the treatment of a broad range of adult and
immature gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep.

Chemical Family: Spiroindole
Mode of Action: Nicotinic cholinergic antagonist"

It seems APVMA is OK with the submission (if I understand things correctly) and is now in the phase of inviting "any person to submit a relevant written submission
as to whether the application for approval of derquantel should be granted". (deadline: within 28 days of the date of the notice).

Startect might hit the ground as early as Spring (this year) ? Who knows?

My previous prognostications were awry. I initially guessed that Startect might be launched in Australia early in 2012.

My reasoning: Zolvix (monepantel) had its world launch in New Zealand in autumn 2009. About 18 months later it was launched in Australia.

Startect was launched in NZ around July 2010. Add 18 months or so to that and you get early 2012 (all being equal…. 🙂

By the way other regions apart from NZ already have Startect eg South Africa and Europe.

Some links:





From wiki:

"The name ….. Zoetis, roughly translates from the derived Latin zoological word zoetic, meaning ‘pertaining to life’". (In similar fashion, Novartis (the biggest or 2nd biggest pharma company in the world (depending on the source)) means ‘new art’, or ‘new way of doing things’, or something like that)

"Zoetis, Inc. (/z-EH-tis/[5]) is the world’s largest producer of medicine and vaccinations for pets and livestock.[5][6] The company was a subsidiary of Pfizer, the world’s largest drug maker, but with Pfizer’s spinoff of its 83% interest in the firm it is now a completely independent company. "



What is lost as handwriting fades…


Which professions have the most psychopaths? The fewest?


19 Reasons Why I Don’t Have A Smartphone" Tales Of Mere Existence – YouTube


(Yep, I have one).




WRML: Primefact 1341 Managing internal parasites in organic livestock production systems etc

To: WormMail list (recip. undisclosed)

In this issue:
New Primefact: Managing internal parasites in organic livestock production systems
DPI role in major sheep industry award
High as the sky worm egg count from Coonamble
WormBoss and centenarians
50 cent paper microscope
Hand washing, colds and flu
Brass door knobs for toilets ? – the oligodynamic effect

New Primefact: Managing internal parasites in organic livestock production systems (Neeson and Love)

Primefact 1341 Managing internal parasites in organic livestock production systems has been published to the website.


DPI role in major sheep industry award


“A team effort from DPI staff, Allan Casey, Chris Shands, Brent McLeod, Jim Meckiff, Tracy Lamb, Gordon Refshauge, Sue Hatcher, Geoff Casburn, Phil Graham, Trudie Atkinson and Ashley White, and the Sheep CRC put the programs in action.”


High as the sky worm egg count from Coonamble

Jillian Kelly, District Veterinarian at Coonamble, investigated problems in a flock of sheep in the Coonamble district. (Lab ref. M14-06598-F-V2)

Findings included high worm egg counts, mild hepatitis, and salmonella* was isolated from pooled faeces from the mob.

One sheep had a worm egg count of 78200 strongyle eggs per gram.

Larval differentiation results: Haemonchus 78%, Trichostrongylus 16%, Teladorsagia (Ostertagia): 6%

This goes into the hall of fame along with other high worm egg counts.

* Did you know salmonella is named after USDA veterinarian Daniel E Salmon? (not to be confused with Dan Salmon, District Veterinarian, Deniliquin, NSW.

Some other notable WECs:

Excerpt from https://wormmailinthecloud.wordpress.com/2012/06/20/wormfax-may-2012/

“Some more ‘record’ high counts:

121, 800 epg at Lithgow:

Adding to our list of high counts, Dr Zoe Spiers (NSW DPI State Vet Lab, EMAI) told me of a case (M12-03656) managed by Dr Mel Gabor.

Nine sheep were sampled. WECs ranged from zero up to 121,800 (Larval culture: 100% Haemonchus).

The sheep with the count of 121,800 had died. The next highest count was 2240. The sheep had apparently been drenched 3-6 months before with fenbendazole. Possibly the sheep with the count of 121,800 had missed a drench. Another likely factor is drench resistance: Haemonchus is resistant to BZs on the great majority of properties in the eastern third of NSW.

107 000 epg at ‘Condo’:

In the May 2012 edition of WormBoss News [http://www.wormboss.com.au/news/outlooks/nsw/may-2012.php] , Dr Katherine Marsh, District Vet., Condobolin mentioned ‘one property with an average count of 14012 epg, with individual counts ranging up to 107 000 epg. The property was losing lambs due to barber’s pole worm’.

Other remarkably high counts mentioned previously:

High liver fluke egg counts from an alpaca in the Central Tablelands (>2,217 Fasciola epg. Case M12-07437-F-V1 ) and from sheep at Berrigan (Riverina, NSW): ~ 750 Fasciola epg (the latter reported by Dr Gareth Kelly, Virbac).

Astonishingly high Trichostrongylus sp counts (~ 60,000 epg) in sheep at Brewarrina (March 2010) were reported by Dr Kylie Greentree who was then Veterinary Officer, Bourke (shared with Dr Charlottle Cavanagh).

Not quite as high, but Dr Steve Eastwood (Armidale) came across sheep in April 2010 with WECs up to 16, 400 (100% Trichostrongylus). (‘Pretty high for ‘Trichs’) “

WormBoss and centenarians

What does WormBoss have to do with senior citizens??

Stanley Le Feuvre, father of well known WormBoss personality Arthur Le Feuvre, turns 100 today.

Congratulations Stanley!

‘No doubt about these irrepressible Le Feuvres. 🙂

Note: moving to Google Apps soon

and, I am not entirely confident my ‘WormMail” group (about 400 contacts) in Lotus Notes will make the journey safely across to the Thraldom of Google. Of course, all may go well (its just that it didn’t last time we changed systems). So, keep in mind www.wormmailinthecloud.wordpress.com just in case.


Stanford bio-engineer develops a 50 cent paper microscope








Hand washing, colds and flu


“Research shows that compared to non-handwashers, those who wash four times a day can have up to 24 per cent fewer sick days due to respiratory infections and 51 per cent fewer days off due to tummy problems. Not only that, proper hand washing could also eliminate about half of all cases of food-borne illness. Yet many of us don’t wash our hands when we should (including health professionals) and when we do, we don’t do it properly. …..”

Read the full story: http://www.abc.net.au/health/features/stories/2014/05/27/4013199.htm

More tips: http://www.dpi.nsw.gov.au/biosecurity/animal/humans/zoonoses-transmission (including the pros and cons of alcohol-based hand rubs (page 3 of the Primefact))

(Unvarnished) brass door knobs for toilets ? – the oligodynamic effect