To WormMail (WRML) list (recip. undisclosed. ~ 400 subscribers).
In this issue (2014-08-29):
· ‘Trifecta’ multi-combination broad-spectrum cattle and sheep drench released
· Dose rate of monepantel (MPL) for llamas
· Useful Ag-related apps for smartphones
· Cattle Parasite Atlas – MLA
· Recovery rates of Fasciola hepatica eggs
· Q&A on worm egg counting
· Prof Marmion and Q Fever
Trifecta multi-combination broad-spectrum cattle and sheep drench released
Coopers‘ new triple active oral drench for sheep and cattle – ‘Coopers Trifecta’ – was registered recently. It was available in stores from 25 August.
‘Trifecta contains the actives abamectin, oxfendazole and levamisole, as well as selenium and cobalt and is registered for use in sheep (over 15 kg and 6 weeks of age) and cattle (over 100kg and over 16 weeks of age) for the control of internal parasites. The dose rate for both species is 1ml/10kg liveweight and it will be available in a 10L drum. Coopers will also have available an 8ml drench gun for sheep and a 60ml drench gun for cattle (with or without a floating hook).’
‘Trifecta has the following withholding periods:
WHP meat (sheep and cattle) – 21 days
ESI Cattle – 21 days
ESI Sheep – 28 days
MILK – Do not use in cows/ewes which are producing or may in the future produce milk that may be used or processed for human consumption.
‘Coopers is currently working towards establishing a treatment to calving interval.’
Coopers Trifecta is the only triple (broad-spectrum) active combination drench available for use in cattle in Australia.
The only other combination (of broad spectrum actives) available for cattle in AU is ‘Eclipse’ (Merial), which is a pour-on (topical) product containing abamectin + levamisole.
The only other cattle drench in AU, that I can think of/find, that contains a macrocyclic lactone and is an oral drench, is ‘Fasimec’ (triclabendazole + ML; Novartis) and it’s equivalent/’mirror’ product, ‘Triclamec’ (Youngs).
There is general consensus among most experts (at least in Australia/NZ) that using a combination of unrelated broad-spectrum actives of similar persistency and with similar spectra of activity – especially if used as part of an integrated approach to worm control (including management of refugia) – is a preferred way to maintain high drench efficacy/manage resistance of worms of grazing livestock.
There is also evidence that, at least in some situations, and with everything else being equal, that oral formulations of a drench outperform the injectable and topical equivalents. I am thinking of the Leathwick and Miller (2013) paper here, but note in that situation the differences in the efficacies of the the formulations types was
D.M Leathwick & C.M. Miller (2013), Efficacy of oral, injectable and pour-on formulations of moxidectin against gastrointestinal nematodes in cattle in New Zealand. Vet. Parasitology 191 (2013) pg293-300.
D.M. Leathwick & R.B. Besier (2014), The management of anthelmintic resistance in grazing ruminants in Australasia – Strategies and experiences. Vet. Parasitology 204 (2014) pg44-54.
Dose rate of monepantel (MPL) for llamas
Dadak and others (2013) conducted studies to see what dose rate of MPL was efficacious in llamas. The dose rate for sheep is 2.5mg/kg liveweight.
The authors concluded: “.. monepantel is considered (to be) highly effective in llamas naturally infected with GINs (gastrointestinal nematodes), and is recommended at a dose rate of 7.5mg/kg BW. It remains to be investigated whether the efficacy of monepantel is comparable in alpacas at the dose rates studied.”
As always you need to read the full paper for yourself.
Note also that, in Australia, monepantel (Zolvix(R), Novartis) is only registered for use in sheep and that use in other species is ‘off-label’. More information on ‘off-label use and “prescription” by veterinarians:
A. M. Dadak, H. Asanger, A. Tichy, S. Franz (2013). Establishing an efficacious dose rate
of monepantel for treating gastrointestinal nematodes in llamas under field conditions.Veterinary Record 2013;172:155. http://veterinaryrecord.bmj.com/content/172/6/155.1.extract
(Thank-you Dr Paul Mason for the ‘heads up’ regarding this paper).
Useful Ag-related apps for smartphones – from SheepConnect-Tasmania
Cattle Parasite Atlas – Meat and Livestock Australia
This is a useful resource. I am pasting the link as it is not always easy to find things on the MLA website. (Sorry, JS).
However, I must say I have trouble with the suggested program for the NSW Northern Tablelands: perhaps someone can explain it to me sometime. Or, maybe I should drink more coffee.
Recovery rates of Fasciola hepatica eggs
In Happich and Boray’s paper in the Australian Veterinary Journal, 1969 (short title: quantification – chronic fasciolosis), there is an interesting table describing the recovery rates of fluke eggs by floatation and sedimentation techniques. The table is attached. The recoveries ranged from 1% (in a flotation technique) up to around 40% (sedimentation technique).
‘Table 1 shows that only 2 out of 75 samples with 10 epg were positive by the flotation method, but eggs were detected in all samples by sedimentation.’
‘In the flotation technique only about 1% of the eggs were recovered compared with about one third of the total number of eggs by sedimentation.’
‘More eggs (about 40%) were recovered by sedimentation if detergent were added, but the amount of sediment increased considerably and the examination was more difficult.’
‘In positive samples, the average calculated epg was about one-third of the actual epg by both flotation and sedimentation.’
‘Eggs were not recovered from 55 samples, and only asingle egg was recovered from 17 samples containing 10 epg by flotation. Only 1 or 2 eggs were recovered by flotation from 32 samples (43%) containing as many as 100 epg. At both 10 and 100 epg the recovery from a large proportion of samples was appreciably below the
average calculated epg. More uniform recovery was achieved from the samples containing 1000 epg.
‘With sedimentation the variation of recovery from sample to sample with 10 epg was large, but some eggs were recovered from all samples. In 84% of the samples with 100 epg and 77% of the samples with 1000 epg the recoveries deviated only +/_ 30% from the average.’
The flotation solution used was potassium mercuriiodide.
(Mercury salts have the advantage of relatively high specific gravities (see below), but I think they have fallen out of favour for safety reasons??).
(Thank-you Maxine Lyndal-Murphy for bringing this to my attention, again).
Q&A on worm egg counting
Below is some information I gave to a person (private vet practitioner) who attended one of NSW DPI’s egg counting courses. I don’t imagine for a moment that my answer is necessarily 100% accurate or exhaustively accurate. It may however be useful as a starting point for someone wanting to learn more about these parasitological techniques.
The question: “Is there an all in one solution that will float liver fluke? (A producer believes there is and we are not aware of such a solution)”.
The answer I gave: ‘Yes, I was thinking ZnSO4 (zinc sulphate) might be one of them and it is. I consulted some old parasitology references on this’.
‘From the ‘MAFF (Ministry of Agriculture Fish and Food (United Kingdom)) Manual of Vet. Parasitology Laboratory Techniques), 3rd Ed., 1986; ISBN 0 11 242724 3)) : Saturated Zn SO4 solution (Specific gravity (SG) =1.364) is recommended for floating Fasciola eggs (e.g. using a ‘sensitive floatation technique’) as they won’t float in sat. Na Cl (SG=1.204 (1.19 at 20 degrees C according to Thienpont (Thienpont D et al ~ 1979-‘Diagnosing helminthiasis through coprological examination’ – Janssen Research Foundation -Belgium)’.
‘Now, this answers your MgSO4 answer as well. MAFF go on to say that say MgSO4 (SG=1.290 (1.28 at 15 deg according to Thienpont)) is similarly recommended (instead of NaCL) for Metastrongylus eggs, and indeed sat. MgS04 can be used to replace NaCl and will give a better recover of some types of eggs such as Trichuris, Capillaria and Ascaris. If the eggs are required for other procedures (e.g. hatching), then sat. sucrose solution (SG=1.286 (1.12 at 15 deg according to Thienpont)) is better as it has less deleterious effects on egg viability than others’.
‘A disadvantage (MAFF says) of using sat. ZnSO4 to float Fasciola ova is that the shells collapse or at least get misshapen (as do Ballantidium cysts), however they remain easily recognizable – the same clear yellow-green of the shell and the same size – but this collapse can lead some eggs to sink again, so it’s important to proceed with counting once the floatation procedure has started. Thienpont however says the solutions used to float trematode eggs cause shrinkage and discolouration, and the operculum will often disappear. But they can still be differentiated from nematodes, however different trematode eggs (e.g. Fasciola v pararamphistomes) can’t be differentiated).’
‘By the way, the NSW DPI labs (at least when I was in the system) use a sedimentation technique for fluke egg counts.’
‘(Most if not all eggs lose shape in concentrate solutions (i.e. SG> 1.0) over time).’
‘In short, all flotation solutions have their pros and cons. Sat. NacL is cheap and easy, not much will grow in it, but it is murder on lab equipment made of metal (e.g. mechanical stages on microscopes, and metal mechanical counters -which were used in the olden days (when I was in a lab) – and heavy eggs (e.g. trematodes and Metastrongylus) won’t float in it. Sucrose I imagine is messy, but I have never used it. I am not sure what the cons of sat MgS04 might be. Some solutions are toxic .e.g. mercury salt solutions (potassium mercury iodide, which is also very expensive (Thienpoint et al), but has an SG of 1.44 ! at 15 deg. (Thienpont).’
‘From Thienpont et al: ‘in practice, all cestode and nematode eggs (except Metastrongylus) float in fluids with SG between 1.10 and 1.20. Trematode eggs require SG 1.30 – 1.35.’
If there was one parasitology text that ‘does it all’, I would have merely pointed this inquirer to that text.
Now, when it comes to practical information on sheep worm management in Australia, WormBoss comes close to ‘doing it all’. I am unbiased of course. FlyBoss and Liceboss, the other two under the ParaBoss umbrella (parasol?), may well do likewise, but I am less competent to comment on ectoparasites.
Ancient vs modern wheat and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) etc
Effect of Triticum turgidum subsp. turanicum wheat… [Br J Nutr. 2014] – PubMed – NCBI] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24521561?dopt=Citation
Related: non-coeliac gluten sensitivity (NCGS), IBS, wheat allergy (WA), and coeliac disease (CD) etc: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3820047/
Especially for those with CD, one expert said that saying that ancient wheat is better than modern wheat was like saying low tar cigarettes are better ‘full’ tar cigarettes. Just avoid them both.
Higher cholesterol linked with lower risk of death in the more mature person
Here is something for the elderly (all those older than 61.2 years of age)
This is just to confuse you even more – in case dementia wasn’t enough..;-)
Sign of the times
From a friend currently in Ireland:
‘On the main street, O’Connell Street, I just witnessed a large pro-cannabis demonstration. One of the best placards read, “My sign is better than yours.”
Professor Marmion – the man responsible for the introduction and use of the world’s only Q Fever vaccine
Vets, farmers and meat workers are among those most at risk of getting Q fever.
The following is on Q-fever expert, Prof. Marmion, who died recently.