A new edition of this Primefact has been published on the NSW DPI website:
‘Liver fluke – a review’, April 2017, Primefact 813, second edition. Published 2017-04-21.
SL, Armidale NSW 2017-04-26
A new edition of this Primefact has been published on the NSW DPI website:
SL, Armidale NSW 2017-04-26
(Another reason ‘real’ men don’t eat vegetables? (joking!)…but then there is the pork tapeworm..T solium…so real men don’t eat bacon either? (but does T solium survive in bacon/the curing process?? I see a research project happening…)
http://www.wormboss.com.au/news/articles/tests/wormtest-weaner-lambs-and-kids-in-autumn-and-winter.php Thanks ParaBoss (Subscribe to ParaBoss News: http://www.paraboss.com.au/news.php)
https://wormmailinthecloud.wordpress.com/2017/04/20/wrml-2017-04-20-love-and-hutchinson-2003-pathology-and-diagnosis-of-internal-parasites-of-ruminants/ (Preserving good info from VG Cole (1986) etc)
Image credit/source: Ruth Sandow
A photo by Ruth Sandow via Dr Sophie Hemley (District Vet Officer, Local Land Services, Broken Hill, NSW): nematodes in a ‘red roo’ (Macropus rufus). Location: Milparinka, 200 km north of Broken Hill (‘Corner country’, outback NSW).
Dr Dave Spratt (CSIRO), guru on worms of Australian native fauna (along with Ian Beveridge and others), advised as follows:
“Depending on what species the “roo” (or wallaby) was, those large nematodes are species of either Labiostrongylus, Labiosimplex or Labiomultiplex, very common in the stomachs of macropodids.’
“(Being a) “a red ‘roo’, then those nematodes are Labiosimplex of which three species occur in reds”.
I don’t know what species these worms are, but there is some information on Labiosimplex in a paper by Smales, 2011:
Smales LR, 2011. New species and new locality records of the nematode genus Labiosimplex (Strongylida: Chabertiidae) from macropodid marsupials in Western Australia. RECORDS OF THE WESTERN AUSTRALIAN MUSEUM 183–190 (2011). Author information: Parasitology Section, South Australian Museum, North Terrace, Adelaide, South Australia 5000, Australia. Accessed April 2017 at http://museum.wa.gov.au/research/records-supplements/records/new-species-and-new-locality-records-nematode-genus-labiosimple
The Labiosimplex described by Smales are large robust nematodes; male: length 22-27 (23.9) mm; female length 27-33 (30.3) mm. But Smales describes another species in this paper which are larger: male: 45 mm long (average) and females 80 mm.
BUT… I did find this:
“4.11. 1. Macropods (kangaroos and wallabies)
The kangaroos and wallabies harbour the most diverse parasite faunas
of all of the marsupials. By far the most numerous are the strongyloid
nematodes found in the sacculated forestomachs (Fig. 4.11.1), with 250
species described so far but with many more yet to describe. Nematodes
also occur in very large numbers (up to 500, 000) in the forestomach
and are frequently encountered at autopsy. The species described here
have been selected because they are the most frequently encountered
or because they are pathogenic. For simplicity, the term “kangaroo” has
been used to include all kangaroos and wallabies.
Fig. 4.11.1. Stomach of an agile wallaby, Macropus agilis, with
strongyloid nematatodes. (Image courtesy of I. Beveridge).
184.108.40.206 Gastrointestinal tract
Species of Labiostrongylus are large (to 10 cm) nematodes found
in the lumen of the sacculate forestomachs; for simplicity, the
numerous species as well as those of the related genera Labiosimplex,
Labiomultiplex, Parazoniolaimus and Potorostrongylus are dealt with
together.” “Eggs are passed in faeces and a doubly ensheathed L3 emerges from
the egg; the L3 is ingested and migrates into the gastric mucosa; the L4
and adult are found in the stomach lumen. The life cycle may be highly
seasonal with one generation per year and with the development of
adults and the onset of egg laying coinciding with the most favourable
climatic conditions (low temperatures, high rainfall)”. (Emphases (bolding) is mine-SL)
Source: Australasian_Animal_Parasites_Inside_Out-Aust Socy Parasitol-Feb 2015 edition. retrieved 2015-08-11.pdf. Section 4.11: Australian wildlife – monotremes and marsupials, pages ~ 982-985. Published by Australian Society for Parasitology. http://parasite.org.au/publications/australasian-animal-parasites-inside-and-out/
Tenterfield Railway Museum 2017-03 (livestock memorabilia)
Lister-Todd fogging machine: c 1950. For applying insecticide to sheep in tent or enclosed space. Donated by Deepwater Station.
Cattle wagon: Tens of thousands of cattle were transported from Tenterfield in similar wagons.
Queensland sheep wagon, c.1942. (Light grey wagon). Mounted on NSW standard gauge bogey.
From DPI Facebook post by Dr Guy Ballard (NSW DPI Armidale):
This infrared image shows a wild dog walking through pine forest in southern NSW. It is an important proof-of-concept for pursuing improved monitoring of invasive species via aerial platforms in heavily vegetated environments. It is yet another product of a valuable collaboration between NSW DPI and Riverina LLS, working alongside private contractors, National Parks and Forestry Corp.
(Privacy and security? consider also aerial infrared photography? 🙂
Love S and Hutchinson GW, 2003. Pathology and diagnosis of internal parasites of ruminants in Gross Pathology of Ruminants, Proceedings 350, Post Graduate Foundation in Veterinary Science, University of Sydney, Ch. 16, pp. 309–38.
This document is or should be available here:
But, if not, here it is: Love & Hutchinson-Pathol and Dx Int Parasites ruminants – …
Most of the document is current, apart from things likely to have changed since 2003, for example, economics, and the prevalence of anthelmintic resistance.
Among other things, this document preserves some of the valuable information – more or less timeless – from Cole VG, 1986 (no longer in print).
(Cole VG, 1986. Helminth Parasites of Sheep and Cattle. Animal Health in Australia, Volume 8. Australian Agricultural Health and Quarantine Service, Department of Primary Industry, Canberra, p.255).
New Primefact on nodule worm
Flukicides – summaries – efficacies.synergistic combinations.resistance management
Beef CRC ‘Legacy site’
Disturbing Easter-time thought
The truth about spider bites in Australia – they’re unlikely to eat your flesh
10th summer school for young parasitologists – Hamburg August 2017 RSVP 1st June
University of Sydney rankings
The third edition has just been published, this time with fabulous photos by Jane Lamb of Invetus (formerly Vet Health Research etc), Armidale.
A separate post, but I thought I would link to it here as well (and also in a ‘new’ Primefact (#813) on liver fluke (still in press)), in case you missed it. (You can never have too much of liver fluke 🙂
https://wormmailinthecloud.wordpress.com/2017/04/10/wrml-2017-04-10-flukicides-summaries-efficacies-synergistic-combinations-resistance-management/ or, shortlink: http://wp.me/pRGJe-1Jd
‘Looks like lots of good info here on beef production:
Hmm… it just occured to me…. Ascaridia galli of chooks can sometimes (rarely) end up inside hen eggs (Dr Rod Reece, pers comm) … So, what could be inside chocolate Easter eggs produced by the Easter Bunny?…if in fact that lifecycle has been thoroughly elucidated??
An excerpt from a related article:
Of all the spiders whose toxicity is currently known, probably the most toxic are the funnel-web spiders of Australia (of the genera Atrax and Hadronyche). Their bites are lethal to small children within minutes or hours and adults within 24 hours – but, having said this, there have been no Australian fatalities since anti-venom was developed.
(…von einem alten freund…)
“Ranked first in the world for sports-related subjects and best in Australia for medicine, architecture, veterinary sciences (9th in world), anatomy and physiology, English language and literature.”
(One has to promote one’s ‘mother’ (mater..alma mater); plus it is fun to stir one’s friends/colleagues (who went elsewhere)).
SL, Armidale. 2017-04-12 e&oe (Some mistakes may be deliberate, to see if you are paying attention..)
Disclosure: no conflicts of interest.
Below are some summaries I put together, for my own benefit in the first place, but they may be of use to others some time.
I’ve done my best to make accurate summaries but, as always, check the source material.
Fairweather and Boray – flukicides, synergistic combinations, and resistance management. Edited/compiled by Love S, 2016-11-01
Flukicide % efficacy various actives and routes Martin et al Sargent et al Richards et al.compiled Love S, 2016-11-01
Dr Boray’s Primefact has been revised:
Upcoming courses at Tamworth. Follow the links for more information: http://www.dpi.nsw.gov.au/content/agriculture/profarm/courses/faecal-egg-counts
For those not yet subscribed to ParaBoss news ( …tut, tut…), recently there was this nice piece (complete with great pics) on nodule worm (Oesophagostomum columbianum), by Jane Lamb from Veterinary Health Research (Armidale), now part of Invetus:
Veterinarian and former CSIRO scientist, Dr Keith Dash (Father of WormKill), who did his PhD on nodule worm, will no doubt enjoy Jane’s article.
The latest update from new Program Leader, Dr Lewis Kahn:
Article by Central Tablelands LLS District Vet, Dr Kate Peffer:
Might be of interest to some: http://www.wormbook.org/
It’s not about visually impaired cattle. Check it out here:
The BeefSpecs Calculator was developed by the NSW Department of Primary Industries in collaboration with Meat and Livestock Australia, University of New England, Department of Employment, Economic Development and Innovation, University of California Davis, and US Department of Agriculture Meat Animal Research Center.
Story in the news – with pics and maps (of GPS tacking) – featuring Armidale-based researcher Dr Guy Ballard (NSW DPI) and colleagues
http://www.dailytelegraph.com.au/news/nsw/tracking-fang-the-feral-cat-reveals-killing-spree-covering-300km/news-story/b7bd394ce59612af61bbea5c302c68bf?utm_content=buffer9db66&utm_medium=social&utm_source=facebook.com&utm_campaign=buffer (Alas, the article doesnt have credits for the images).
Insightful final comment from Dr Ballard: “It is not their fault they are a problem, it is ours,” he said.
“Running the blistering time of 2:01.46, 15 year old Keely Small became the world’s fastest ranked female aged under 18 over 800 metres.”
(Photobombed by snake)
‘It was not until Ms Dickinson and her children got into the car that her 13-year-old daughter Imogen asked her: “What happened? Did you see a snake mum?”
That was when Ms Dickinson checked her phone and realised she had unwittingly captured a photo of her daughter standing dangerously close to a brown snake.’
Photo credit: Bianca Dickinson, Victoria. abc.net.au
This is the current Australian and NZ ‘official’ document for diagnostic procedures relating to nematode parasites of ruminants:
Hutchinson GW, (2009). Nematode Parasites of Ruminants: Australian and New Zealand Standard Diagnostic Procedures. Sub-Committee on Animal Health Laboratory Standards (SCAHLS)
It was available at the SCAHLS website, but that site no longer appears to be extant. (Due to rationalisations of federal government expenditure).
This document is currently (March 2017) available at the WA Dept of Agriculture website: http://www.agriculture.gov.au/animal/health/laboratories/procedures/anzsdp/nematode-parasites-ruminants
Also attached is an annotated version, containing some minor notes/updates (which are obvious, given red font (Microsoft’s ‘Track Changes’ facility). Hutchinson GW-ANZSDP-ruminant_nematodes-SCAHLS-issued May 2009- update- SLove 2016-09
Hutchinson (2009) updated the edition by Maxine Lyndal-Murphy (~1993?) which in turn updated the editions by CA (Cliff) Hall (1982, revised 1987). For those who wish to check out the Lyndal-Murphy edtion, I will attach it here: Lyndal-Murphy M.Anthelmintic resistance in sheep. ASDT. 20061020094742
This (but not the current (Hutchinson, 2009) version?) is also available at the JA Whitlock website: http://www.whitlock.com.au/slides/pdf/ASDT-AnthrlmResist-signed.pdf
There are variations of the Modified McMaster technique (described by Hutchinson (2009) and in other places). Following is an outline of one of the methods currently used by those working (research/teaching) in animal science at UNE.
(One method uses a counting slide having chambers with a nominal volume of 0.3ml, and another uses a Whitlock Universal slide, which have “0.5 ml” volume chambers. More information below under ‘Whitlock Counting Slides’ ).
The following comments apply generally. Prepare the compound microscope for counting the 1st chamber. Choose 40x magnification (i.e., with the 4x objective (and 10x eyepieces). (Take care not to choose high power objectives, especially oil immersion objectives, if present, because they are larger and closer to the microscope stage and may contact and damage the counting slide). Rack the stage up close to the 4 x objective, then slowly lower the stage until you can identify and focus on lines of the counting chamber, and/or the small air bubbles in the solution which appear as round black refractive objects. This ensures that you are in the correct focal plane. Look for an egg and adjust the contrast (condenser) lever below the stage to ensure proper visualisation. Increase power to 100x (use 10x objective) to examine individual eggs or items in detail. Counting eggs is best done at 40x, as the full width of a chamber can be seen.
(Source: Adapted from notes for ‘student pracs’ provided 2017-03-31 by Michael Raue, University of New England ).
‘Nominal volumes’ of chambers in counting slides: see below.
JA Whitlock (Sydney NSW) make and supply counting chambers. There are doubtless other sources.
Whitlock slides and prices: http://www.whitlock.com.au/slides/Price-wGST2017b.html (Accessed 31 March 2017).
The Whitlock universal slide (4 chambers, each 0.5ml) is specifically designed for parasite worm egg counts in large and small animals. Currently (from 1 March 2017) they cost $145 incl GST. They are glass sides and do last a long time (perhaps decades) if looked after.(Dropping on a concrete floor is not advised) These slides are commonly used in veterinary diagnostic laboratories, including the NSW DPI laboratory at Menangle, NSW.
The McMaster (3 x 0.3ml) and Paracytometer (2 x 0.6ml) slides have been discontinued, having been superseded by the Universal.
The chamber volumes of 0.3, 0.5 and 0.6 mls are nominal volumes. They refer to the volume of fluid under the lines scored on the slide. The actual volume of the chambers are a little bigger than their ‘nominal’ volumes.
What size mesh for the sieve designed to filter out extraneous material from the faeces-water-flotation solution mixture?
Hutchinson, 2009 (~page 17, line 770), suggests a mesh with 12 meshes per centimetre.
How do you calculate the egg count (eggs per gram of faeces) from the raw egg count (the number of eggs you counted in the counting slide (whether one or two chambers)?
Eggs per gram (epg) of faeces = ((eggs counted in scanned area of slide ) x (volume of faeces-flotation solution mix)) divided by (weight of faecal sample x volume of the counting chamber(s)).
Assume this is the method you use: 3g of faeces is put into a jar (plus a small amount of water to aid breaking up/mixing of the faeces). Then flotation fluid (commonly saturated salt (NaCl) solution is added to make a total volume of 60 mls. After thoroughly mixing, a pipette (or syringe) is used to draw some of this fluid up and then transferred to a chamber in a Whitlock Universal slide. (These have 5 x ‘0.5’ml chambers). (In this method, usually one chamber is counted per sheep sample, and two chambers for each cattle sample).
Say there are 55 eggs counted. The EPG = 55 x (60) / (3 x 0.5) = 2200 (Multiplication factor is 40 (60/(3 x 0.5)).
Say your methof uses a 4 g faecal sample, made up to 60 ml, and a slide with 0.3ml chambers is used. The multiplication factor is (60) / (4 x 0.3) = 50.
The following is also useful information. (Accessed March 2017).
An example of information from the above:
“Saturated salt solution. Specific gravity: 1.18 – 1.20
. General purpose solution.
Sodium chloride: 400 grams Water: 1000 ml
• Stir thoroughly before use.
• May distort eggs.”
(I would also add: regularly check your stock solution with a hydrometer to check specific gravity (SG) is correct. Alternative: weigh the solution. One litre of a solution with a SG of 1.2 should weigh 1.2kg)