WRML.2017-06-29.wormfax.paraboss.w-boss workshop.breeding sheep.red deer.parascaris etc

In this issue:

WormFaxNSW May 2017 edition

ParaBoss News

WormBoss workshop – DEEPWATER, northern NSW – WED 12 July 2017

ParaBoss -background information and advertising

Selecting sheep for resistance and/or resilience – South Africa

Goat worm Primefact – NSW DPI / LLS

Establishment rate of cattle gastrointestinal nematodes in farmed red deer

Animal health feedback part of emerging cattle performance info super-highway

Managing anthelmintic resistance in Parascaris spp.: A modelling exercise

SAMRC appoints Regional Chairs for South Australia and Southern New South Wales

Bee vectoring technology – now using honey bees

Chemical Company Mergers on the Horizon

Massive ‘bean’ removed from horse UGT

Quotes on the internet

Toxicology and Abraham Lincoln

Large coffee – more volume, same beans?

WormFaxNSW May 2017 edition

The summary data (sheep WormTests, NSW) for May is now up on the web: http://www.dpi.nsw.gov.au/about-us/publications/wormfax

The labs who have been providing this data each month over many years are the State Vet Lab at  NSW DPI’s EMAI. (Many thanks Kathy C and Angela C), and Armidale’s Veterinary Health Research (now a part of Invetus (invetus.com) ) (Many thanks Amanda S).

ParaBoss News

The issue for this month is just out (28 June). If you haven’t subscribed, I suggest you do. The NEWS contains locally as well as nationally relevant commentary from experts on what is happening parasite-wise.

To subscribe, go to https://www.paraboss.com.au/news.php (The ‘HTTPS’ indicates it is a secure connection). HTTP VS HTTPS

WormBoss workshop – DEEPWATER, northern NSW – WED 12 July 2017

RSVP 7 July.

More information: https://www.paraboss.com.au/news/newsletters/1498014834.php  (Dr D Maxwell owes me big time… 🙂

ParaBoss -background information and advertising

From https://www.paraboss.com.au/news/advertise-in-the-bosses.php :

“ParaBoss is a not-for-profit organisation that unites and manages WormBoss, FlyBoss and LiceBoss. These resources provide sheep producers and industry professionals with practical and cost-effective recommendations and decision support tools to control sheep parasites.”

For more information, including opportunities to advertise, go to the link above.

Quite apart from NSW DPI (along with others) being a major contributor to the ‘Boss from the get-go (~ 2003), I think this is a great resource –THE resource on practical livestock parasitology – and, as far as I know, unsurpassed anywhere.  (My conflicts of interest (financial or other): zero)

Selecting sheep for resistance and/or resilience – South Africa

From Dr Faffa Malan of South Africa: “We thank Alan Fisher and his team for the tremendous work they have done for proving how to select sheep for resistance or resilience against wireworm in the Summer rainfall areas. I asked Alan after the RuVASA* congress to send me protocols of how they achieved this. … FAMACHA cards can be ordered from Lana Botha at Onderstepoort Faculty (lana.botha@up.ac.za  082 768 5072)”     *RuVasa (Ruminant Veterinary Association of South Africa) is a special interest group of SAVA (the South African Veterinary Association)  See here:  Fisher-Alan. Protocol to select for sheep and goats resistant or resilient to wireworm in the summer rainfall area-South Africa-frm F Malan 2017-06

This may be of interest. For further information relevant to your situation, check with a professional adviser skilled in this area. And check out WormBoss! – see here: http://www.wormboss.com.au/tests-tools/management-tools/breeding.php

Note: ‘wireworm’ is the common name (and understandably so) in South Africa for Haemonchus. There is another wireworm there: it is Libyostrongylus douglassi, in ostriches (both of which we have in Australia as well).

Goat worm Primefact – NSW DPI / LLS

” A new Primefact on managing worms in goats in NSW has just been published on  the NSW DPI website: http://www.dpi.nsw.gov.au/animals-and-livestock/sheep/health/internal-parasites/managing-worms-in-goats-in-nsw This is a joint venture by veterinarians from Hunter Local Land Services (Dr Kylie Greentree) and NSW DPI (Dr Stephen Love).
“The 22 page ‘factsheet’ is in no way a substitute for the information on WormBoss, which is Australia’s premier resource for managing worms in sheep and goats. Rather this Primefact is meant as a stepping stone for those who would prefer information on goat worm control in an ‘all in one document’. If it all possible, however, it is recommended that users avail themselves of the even more extensive information at WormBoss, which is also print friendly and easy to navigate. ‘Your program’ at WormBoss.com. au is a good place to start.”

Establishment rate of cattle gastrointestinal nematodes in farmed red deer

ten Doesschate, S.J., Pomroy, W.E., Tapia-Escarate, D., Scott, I., Wilson, P.R., Establishment rate of cattle gastrointestinal nematodes in farmed red deer (Cervus elaphus).Veterinary Parasitology http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetpar.2017.06.016


  • Young red deer were as readily infected as young cattle with cattle-origin Haemonchus contortus and Trichostrongylus axei.
  • The establishment rate of Ostertagia ostertagi and Cooperia oncophora were low in red deer compared to cattle.
  • These findings suggest a low risk of cross infection between cattle and red deer.

Red deer can be infected with some gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) of cattle but it is unknown to what extent. An indoor study was conducted to determine the establishment rate of cattle GIN in young deer. Five young calves and 5 young red deer were used. They were effectively treated with anthelmintics when housed and then infected 2 weeks later. After four weeks they were killed for total worm counts. Establishment rates were assessed comparing worm counts to the infective dose which were identified morphologically, and to the relative establishment rate of different species. The establishment rates (%) in cattle and deer respectively were H. contortus (8.0, 18.7, p = 0.18), Ostertagia ostertagi (30.8, 0.7, p<0.001), Cooperia spp. (72.3, 2.3, p<0.001) and Trichostrongylus spp. (19.0, 25.3, p = 0.12). The majority (>98%) of Trichostrongylus spp. were Trichostrongylus axei in both hosts and there were no differences between hosts for this species (p = 0.11). In cattle >98% of Cooperia were Cooperia oncophora and the mean burden was much higher than in deer (p < 0.01) where there were similar proportions of Cooperia oncophora, Cooperia punctata and C. curticei. Small numbers of Oesophagostomum venulosum were also present with 3X as many found in deer as in cattle (p < 0.05). This study has shown that some cattle-origin GIN can establish in red deer. In particular, the establishment of H. contortus and T. axei could allow sufficient burdens to build up to be clinically significant. Importantly, almost no cattle Ostertagia species or small intestinal species established in deer.

Animal health feedback part of emerging cattle performance info super-highway

By Jon Condon, 28 June 2017 – Beef Central News
‘Teys Australia told a recent producer gathering in Central QLD that detailed animal heath feedback reporting, based on offal condition, would soon start to filter through to producers supplying the company slaughter cattle, in next generation feedback sheets. It’s another example of the cattle performance info ‘super-highway’ that’s emerging in the industry.’



 Managing anthelmintic resistance in Parascaris spp.: A modelling exercise

Leathwick DM, Sauermann CW, Geurden T, Nielsen MKt.
Vet Parasitol. 2017 Jun 15;240:75-81. doi: 10.1016/j.vetpar.2017.03.026. Epub 2017 Mar 30.


A previously described model for the dynamics of the parasitic stages of Parascaris spp. was modified to include eggs outside the host and the genetics of anthelmintic resistance before being used to address questions regarding the development of resistance. Three broad questions were addressed; i) How sustainable is the current common practice of treating foals monthly for their first year of life (i.e. 12 treatments/year)? ii) Does the timing of treatments have an effect on resistance development? (i.e. do certain treatments select for resistance more strongly than others?), and iii) How sustainable is the currently recommended strategy of targeting ascarid infections in foals with two treatments applied during the first five months of life? A range of variations within these broad questions were considered, such as the value in rotational deworming, whether larvicidal treatments are more selective for resistance, and whether combination anthelmintics should be introduced. Twelve anthelmintic treatments at monthly intervals resulted in the development of resistance to all the anthelmintics used, regardless of how they were used, indicating that such intensive treatment frequency is unlikely to be sustainable. The timing of a single annual treatment influenced resistance development with treatments at 3 and 4 months of age being more selective than treatments at other times. Treatments administered to foals older than 6 months of age did not select for resistance within the timeframe of these simulations. Treatments with activity against migrating third stage larvae (ivermectin and a programme of 5 daily treatments with fenbendazole) were more selective for resistance than those which only killed worms in the intestine. Restricting the number of treatments to young foals to two, administered at 2 and 5 months of age slowed the development of resistance by allowing a small contribution from susceptible genotype worms to subsequent generations. If the interval between treatments was reduced, resistance developed more rapidly demonstrating the importance of allowing some susceptible worms to reach patency before the second treatment is administered. Under a reduced treatment schedule with a clearly defined ‘refugium’ of susceptibility, the use of effective actives in combination appears to offer advantages for delaying resistance development. The model offers insights into more sustainable drug use strategies and has identified some priority questions for future research.

SAMRC appoints Regional Chairs for South Australia and Southern New South Wales

See here: Media Release- SAMRC Regional Chairs

Bee vectoring technology – now using honey bees

“Bee Vectoring Technology (BVT) is a Canadian company that has developed technology to use bumble bees to deliver pest control products to flowers. Tasmania is the only state in Australia that has bumble bees” (apparently accidentally introduced ~ 1990s). “BVT has recently announced that they are Filing for Patent on New Honeybee Delivery System. This is exciting because the technology can now be introduced into Australia.”  

Source: NSW DPI’s Farm Chemical Update newsletter. To subscribe: https://tinyurl.com/farm-chem-update (= http://nsw.us3.list-manage.com/subscribe?u=b39f84b6e19b467407cf58ed6&id=344e0b98a4  (The newsletter uses MailChimp))

Chemical Company Mergers on the Horizon

Also from NSW DPI’s Farm Chemical Update newsletter (edited by Bruce Browne et al):
“Some big chemical company mergers are in the pipeline. Six of the world’s largest agricultural chemical companies are soon to become three.
ChemChina and Syngenta now have regulatory approval and are about to finalise the merger of the two companies. Dupont is to merge with Dow Chemicals pending approval of regulators including the United States, Brazil, China, Australia and Canada. The deal is expected to close in August 2017. German company Bayer and the US company Monsanto are also is expecting to close a merger deal by the end of 2017, pending approvals by the major regulators”.

Less is more?

Massive ‘bean’ removed from horse UGT


Quotes on the internet

“The problem with quotes on the internet is you can never be certain they’re authentic.” – Abraham Lincoln

Image: A Lincoln. Source/credit: unknown  (Thanks JL)

Toxicology and Abraham Lincoln

Lincoln’s mother apparently died from ‘milk sickness’.  From wiki:

“Milk sickness, also known as tremetol vomiting or, in animals, as trembles, is a kind of poisoning, characterized by trembling, vomiting, and severe intestinal pain, that affects individuals who ingest milk, other dairy products, or meat from a cow that has fed on white snakeroot plant, which contains the poison tremetol. Although very rare today, milk sickness claimed thousands of lives among European-American migrants to the Midwest in the early 19th century in the United States, especially in frontier areas along the Ohio River Valley and its tributaries where white snakeroot was prevalent. New settlers were unfamiliar with the plant and its properties. A notable victim was Nancy Hanks Lincoln, the mother of Abraham Lincoln, who died in 1818. Nursing calves and lambs may have died from their mothers’ milk contaminated with snakeroot, although the adult cows and sheep showed no signs of poisoning. Cattle, horses, and sheep are the animals most often poisoned.”

More info: Eupatorium rugosum (White snakeroot) (dangerous: summer and autumn), in table at: http://www.merckvetmanual.com/toxicology/poisonous-plants/range-plants-of-temperate-north-america


SL, Armidale 2017-06-29

Conflicts of interest: zip, nichts, nada, zero, zilch, dim ..    

ee&0e (egregious errors and omissions excepted)

NSW DPI Agriculture – largest rural R&D provider in Australia. See here

Speaking of ‘beans’ ..

large coffee

WRML.2017-06-14.screening for new drugs.predicting fluke risk.new DPI Director.poultry parasitology etc

In this issue:

  • Screening for new anthelmintics
  • Predicting Fasciola risk
  • New Director, Extensive Livestock Industries, NSW DPI
  • Animal Health Surveillance Quarterly
  • Dr Rod Reece on poultry parasitology
  • Poultry meat industry overview – Byron Stein (NSW DPI)
  • The bee’s knees (value of bees)  Grammar  Some nice pics  Passwords – go with the crowd

New anthelmintic? – a possible lead?

Preston, S., Jiao, Y., Baell, J.B., Keiser, J., Crawford, S., Koehler, A.V., Wang, T., Simpson, M.M., Kaplan, R.M., Cowley, K.J., Simpson, K.J., Hofmann, A., Jabbar, A., Gasser, R.B., Screening of the ‘Open Scaffolds’ collection from Compounds Australia identifies a new chemical entity with anthelmintic activities against different developmental stages of the barber’s pole worm and other parasitic nematodes, International Journal for Parasitology: Drugs and Drug Resistance (2017), doi: 10.1016/j.ijpddr.2017.05.004. Available online 28 May 2017 In Press, Accepted Manuscript


The discovery and development of novel anthelmintic classes is essential to sustain the control of socioeconomically important parasitic worms of humans and animals. With the aim of offering novel, lead-like scaffolds for drug discovery, Compounds Australia released the ‘Open Scaffolds’ collection containing 33,999 compounds, with extensive information available on the physicochemical properties of these chemicals. In the present study, we screened 14,464 prioritised compounds from the ‘Open Scaffolds’ collection against the exsheathed third-stage larvae (xL3s) of Haemonchus contortus using recently developed whole-organism screening assay. We identified a hit compound, called SN00797439, which was shown to reproducibly reduce xL3 motility by ≥ 70%; this compound induced a characteristic, “coiled” xL3 phenotype (IC50 = 3.46–5.93 μM), inhibited motility of fourth-stage larvae (L4s; IC50 = 0.31–12.5 μM) and caused considerable cuticular damage to L4s in vitro. When tested on other parasitic nematodes in vitro, SN00797439 was shown to inhibit (IC50 = 3–50 μM) adults of Ancylostoma ceylanicum (hookworm) and first-stage larvae of Trichuris muris (whipworm) and eventually kill (>90%) these stages. Furthermore, this compound completely inhibited the motility of female and male adults of Brugia malayi (50–100 μM) as well as microfilariae of both B. malayi and Dirofilaria immitis (heartworm). Overall, these results show that SN00797439 acts against genetically (evolutionarily) distant parasitic nematodes i.e. H. contortus and A. ceylanicum [strongyloids] vs. B. malayi and D. immitis [filarioids] vs. T. muris [enoplid], and, thus, might offer a novel, lead-like scaffold for the development of a relatively broad-spectrum anthelmintic. Our future work will focus on assessing the activity of SN00797439 against other pathogens that cause neglected tropical diseases, optimising analogs with improved biological activities and characterising their targets.

Predicting impacts of climate change on Fasciola hepatica risk

Dr Gareth Kelly of Merial brought this to my attention (13 June 2017).

Fox NJ, White PCL, McClean CJ, Marion G, Evans A, Hutchings MR (2011) Predicting Impacts of Climate Change on Fasciola hepatica Risk. PLoS ONE 6(1): e16126. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0016126


Fasciola hepatica (liver fluke) is a physically and economically devastating parasitic trematode whose rise in recent years has been attributed to climate change. Climate has an impact on the free-living stages of the parasite and its intermediate host Lymnaea truncatula, with the interactions between rainfall and temperature having the greatest influence on transmission efficacy. There have been a number of short term climate driven forecasts developed to predict the following season’s infection risk, with the Ollerenshaw index being the most widely used. Through the synthesis of a modified Ollerenshaw index with the UKCP09 fine scale climate projection data we have developed long term seasonal risk forecasts up to 2070 at a 25 km square resolution. Additionally UKCIP gridded datasets at 5 km square resolution from 1970-2006 were used to highlight the climate-driven increase to date. The maps show unprecedented levels of future fasciolosis risk in parts of the UK, with risk of serious epidemics in Wales by 2050. The seasonal risk maps demonstrate the possible change in the timing of disease outbreaks due to increased risk from overwintering larvae. Despite an overall long term increase in all regions of the UK, spatio-temporal variation in risk levels is expected. Infection risk will reduce in some areas and fluctuate greatly in others with a predicted decrease in summer infection for parts of the UK due to restricted water availability. This forecast is the first approximation of the potential impacts of climate change on fasciolosis risk in the UK. It can be used as a basis for indicating where active disease surveillance should be targeted and where the development of improved mitigation or adaptation measures is likely to bring the greatest benefits.

(Note: Lymnaea trunculata is now (for this week at least)  Galba (syn. Lymnaea)
trunculata. See here and here).

DPI News: new Director Extensive Livestock Industries – Siôn Jones

As part of a ‘change process’, the Sheep and Beef Units, each of which were headed by a Director, has been combined into one: ‘Extensive Livestock Industries’.

Siôn Jones has been appointed the new Director, Extensive Livestock Industries. (Pronunciation of Siôn: ‘same as or similar to Sean, Shaun).

More info: https://wormmailinthecloud.wordpress.com/2016/10/07/nsw-dpi-agriculture-largest-rural-rd-provider-in-australia/

Animal Health Surveillance Quarterly

Latest issue: https://www.animalhealthaustralia.com.au/our-publications/animal-health-surveillance-quarterly/

Dr Rod Reece on paltry poultry parasitology

Reece -Rod parasites acel reece 2017 FINAL (1) EDITS finalised SL 2017-06-07


Poultry meat industry overview – Byron Stein (NSW DPI)

If you found Prof. Mingan Choct’s earlier comments  (progress in poultry) interesting, you will enjoy this overview by Byron as well:


The bee’s knees (value of bees)

“The honey bee industry delivers over $4 billion in value to the Australian economy through pollination services, honey and associated products that include cosmetics and medicinal products” – Alex Russell, Manager, Intensive Industries, NSW DPI-Agriculture




Some nice pics


Passwords – go with the crowd

Sometimes it is best to be ‘mainstream’, to run with the herd. This applies to passwords.

Well, one of the most popular passwords is ‘password’.   Go with that. If it’s popular, it must be good. If you can’t remember that your password is ‘password’, even though you use it for everything, write ‘password’ on a piece of paper and stick it on your computer. Write it in large letters with a ‘texta’ in case you have lost your glasses. (Disclaimer: the reference to ‘glasses’ possibly implies some ageism is happening here, because older persons are more likely to need glasses. No ageism is intended: stupidity seems to be no respecter of age. But, see here). Even I.T. specialists sometimes reset user’s passwords to ‘password’. So, it must be OK.

If you are a rebellious super-nerd, be super tricky and use something like ‘password1’ or ‘passw0rd’.

Back in the dark ages (~ 10+ years ago), when computer passwords could be anything and any length, an otherwise-very intelligent colleague of mine used her/his bank PIN as their password for their work computer (and possibly everything else).  As far as I know, his/her identity and assets are still intact, so using your bank PIN as your universal password must be OK.   Anon (with tic…tongue in cheek)

Postscript 2017-06-14T1500:

Hmm…Security guru Bruce Schneier says this (in 2014):
This is why the oft-cited XKCD scheme for generating passwords — string together individual words like “correcthorsebatterystaple” — is no longer good advice. The password crackers are on to this trick.
Then BS says this:

‘Pretty much anything that can be remembered can be cracked.

‘There’s still one scheme that works. Back in 2008, I described the “Schneier scheme”:

So if you want your password to be hard to guess, you should choose something that this process will miss. My advice is to take a sentence and turn it into a password. Something like “This little piggy went to market” might become “tlpWENT2m”. That nine-character password won’t be in anyone’s dictionary. Of course, don’t use this one, because I’ve written about it. Choose your own sentence — something personal.

It’s too hard…I’ll just use password…or 123456789  (NOT!)  ..or a Password Manager, and two factor authentication



SL, Armidale 2017-06-14  

ee&oe     (egregious errors and omissions excepted)